The Future of Human-Machine Interaction: Implant Technology

  • Kevin Warwick
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing book series (AINSC, volume 103)


In this paper a look is taken at how the use of implant and electrode technology can be employed to create biological brains for robots, to enable human enhancement and to diminish the effects of certain neural illnesses. In all cases the end result is to increase the range of abilities of the recipients. An indication is given of a number of areas in which such technology has already had a profound effect, a key element being the need for a clear interface linking a biological brain directly with computer technology. The emphasis is placed on practical scientific studies that have been and are being undertaken and reported on. The area of focus is the use of electrode technology, where either a connection is made directly with the cerebral cortex and/or nervous system or where implants into the human body are involved. The paper also considers robots that have biological brains in which human neurons can be employed as the sole thinking machine for a real world robot body.


robotics cyborgs interfacing artificial intelligence 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bekey, G.: Autonomous Robots. MIT Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brooks, R.: Robot. Penguin (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chiappalone, M., Vato, A., Berdondini, L., Koudelka-Hep, M., Martinoia, S.: Network dynamics and synchronous activity in cultured cortical neurons. International Journal of Neural Systems 17(2), 87–103 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DeMarse, T., Wagenaar, D., Blau, A., Potter, S.: The neurally controlled animat: Biological brains acting with simulated bodies. Autonomous Robots 11, 305–310 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donoghue, J., Nurmikko, A., Friehs, G., Black, M.: Development of a neuromotor prosthesis for humans. Advances in Clinical Neurophysiology (Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology) 57, 588–602 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foster, K., Jaeger, J.: Rfid inside. IEEE Spectrum 44(3), 24–29 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Graafstra, V.: Hands on. IEEE Spectrum 44(3), 18–23 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hameed, J., Harrison, I., Gasson, M., Warwick, K.: A novel human-machine interface using subdermal implants. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Cybernetic Intelligent Systems, pp. 106–110 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kennedy, P., Andreasen, D., Ehirim, P., King, B., Kirby, T., Mao, H., Moore, M.: Using human extra-cortical local field potentials to control a switch. Journal of Neural Engineering 1(2), 72–77 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pan, S., Warwick, K., Gasson, M., Burgess, J., Wang, S., Aziz, T., Stein, J.: Prediction of Parkinson’s disease tremor onset with artificial neural networks. In: Proceedings of the IASTED Conference BioMed., pp. 341–345 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pinter, M., Murg, M., Alesch, F., Freundl, B., Helscher, R., Binder, H.: Does deep brain stimulation of the nucleus ventralis intermedius affect postural control and locomotion in Parkinson’s disease? Movement Disorders 14(6), 958–963 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Searle, J.: The Mystery of Consciousness. Review Books, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Warwick, K.: The Chip and I. In: Wheeler, W. (ed.) The Political Subject: Essays on the Self From Art, Politics and Science, p. 273. Lawrence & Wishart, London (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Warwick, K.: Implications and consequences of robots with biological brains. Ethics and Information Technology 12(3), 223–234 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M.: Implantable computing. In: Cai, Y. (ed.) Digital Human Modeling. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4650, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M., Hutt, B., Goodhew, I., Kyberd, P., Andrews, B., Teddy, P., Shad, A.: The application of implant technology for cybernetic systems. Archives of Neurology 60(10), 1369–1373 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Warwick, K., Gasson, M., Hutt, B., Goodhew, I., Kyberd, P., Schulzrinne, H., Wu, X.: Thought communication and control: A first step using radiotelegraphy. IEEE Proceedings—Communications 151(3), 185–189 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Warwick, K., Nasuto, S., Becerra, V., Whalley, B.: Experiments with an in-vitro robot brain. LNCS, vol. 5987, 1–15 (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu, D., Warwick, K., Ma, Z., Burgess, J., Pan, S., Aziz, T.: Prediction of Parkinson’s disease tremor onset using radial basis function neural networks. Expert Systems with Applications 37(4), 2923–2928 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kevin Warwick
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of ReadingReadingUK

Personalised recommendations