Licensing the Mizar Mathematical Library

  • Jesse Alama
  • Michael Kohlhase
  • Lionel Mamane
  • Adam Naumowicz
  • Piotr Rudnicki
  • Josef Urban
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6824)


The Mizar Mathematical Library (MML) is a large corpus of formalised mathematical knowledge. It has been constructed over the course of many years by a large number of authors and maintainers. Yet the legal status of these efforts of the Mizar community has never been clarified. In 2010, after many years of loose deliberations, the community decided to investigate the issue of licensing the content of the MML, thereby clarifying and crystallizing the status of the texts, the text’s authors, and the library’s long-term maintainers. The community has settled on a copyright and license policy that suits the peculiar features of Mizar and its community. In this paper we discuss the copyright and license solutions. We offer our experience in the hopes that the communities of other libraries of formalised mathematical knowledge might take up the legal and scientific problems that we addressed for Mizar.


free culture open data free licensing formal mathematics mizar 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    de Bruijn, N.G.: A survey of the project AUTOMATH. In: Hindley, R., Seldin, J. (eds.) To H.B. Curry: Essays in Combinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus and Formalisms, pp. 579–606. Academic Press, London (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Creative Commons BY-SA, (last accessed 2011/03/14)
  3. 3.
    Free Software Foundation Europe, Fiduciary License Agreement (FLA),
  4. 4.
    The FLOSSmole project,
  5. 5.
    Free Software Foundation: The GNU General Public License, version 3 (June 29, 2007),
  6. 6.
    Licenses – definitions of free cultural works.
  7. 7.
    Various licenses and comments about them,
  8. 8.
    Hillesley, R.: Copyright assignment–once bitten, twice shy. The H Open (August 6, 2010),
  9. 9.
    Howison, J., Conklin, M., Crowston, K.: FLOSSmole: A collaborative repository for FLOSS research data and analyses. International Journal of Information Technology and Web Engineering 1, 17–26 (2006), current data CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jackson, T., Dance, G., Ko, H., Kueneman, A., Bost, K., Meek, M.: IBM’s Watson trivia challenge,
  11. 11.
    van Benthem, L.S.: Checking Landau’s “Grundlagen” in the AUTOMATH System, Mathematical Centre Tracts, vol. 83. Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1979)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuhn, B.M.: Not all copyright assignment is created equal (February 1, 2010),
  13. 13.
    Mamane, L.E.: Surreal numbers in coq. In: Filliâtre, J.-C., Paulin-Mohring, C., Werner, B. (eds.) TYPES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3839, pp. 170–185. Springer, Heidelberg (2006), doi:10.1007/11617990_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    The Mizar Mathematical Library. Browsable online,
  15. 15.
    Naumowicz, A.: Conjugate sequences, bounded complex sequences and convergent complex sequences. Formalized Mathematics 6(2), 265–268 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Software, B.D.: Open source resource center–license data, (last accessed March 2011)
  17. 17.
    Stallman, R.M.: Free Software Free Society: Selected Essays, 1st edn. ch.15, p. 91. GNU Press (2002); 2nd edn,; chapter 15:
  18. 18.
    Stallman, R.M.: When a company asks for your copyright (September 29, 2010),
  19. 19.
    Urban, J.: Translating Mizar for first order theorem provers. In: Asperti, A., Buchberger, B., Davenport, J.H. (eds.) MKM 2003. LNCS, vol. 2594, pp. 203–215. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Urban, J.: MPTP 0.2: Design, implementation, and initial experiments. Journal of Automated Reasoning 37(1-2), 21–43 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
    Welte, H.: GPL enforcement. talk at FOSDEM 2005, (February 2005), abstract at
  23. 23.
    Wheeler, D.A.: High assurance (for security or safety) and free-libre open source software (FLOSS)…with lots on formal methods software verification, (released 2006-06-02) (updated 2009-11-30)
  24. 24.
    Wheeler, D.A.: Make your open source software GPL-compatible. or else, (released 2002-05-06) (revised 2010-09-14)
  25. 25.
    Wiedijk, F. (ed.): The Seventeen Provers of the World. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3600. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesse Alama
    • 1
  • Michael Kohlhase
    • 2
  • Lionel Mamane
    • 1
  • Adam Naumowicz
    • 3
  • Piotr Rudnicki
    • 4
  • Josef Urban
    • 5
  1. 1.Center for Artificial IntelligenceNew University of LisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Computer ScienceJacobs UniversityGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of BialystokPoland
  4. 4.Department of Computing ScienceUniversity of AlbertaCanada
  5. 5.Institute for Computing and Information SciencesRadboud University NijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations