Node Architectures and Its Deployment in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

  • Sumit Kushwaha
  • Vinay Kumar
  • Sanjeev Jain
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 169)

Abstract

In conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), adding a few mobile nodes can greatly improve the control and sensing capabilities of the networks and can help researchers solve many challenges such as network deployment and scalability etc. The video capture, processing, and communication in wireless video sensor networks depend on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor networks. The major challenge in designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is the support of the functional, such as data latency, and the non-functional, such as data integrity etc. Careful sensor node placement can be a very effective optimization, means for achieving the desired design goals. In this paper we thoroughly survey and contrast the existing sensor node architectures. We also survey the research on optimized node placement in WSNs. We have provided the placement strategies into static and dynamic depending on whether the optimization is performed at the time of deployment or while the network is operational.

Keywords

Sensor Node Architectures Node placement Positioning Node relocation Wireless sensor networks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Su, W., Sankarasubramaniam, W., Cayirci, E.: Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Computer Networks 38, 393–422 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chong, C.Y., Kumar, S.P.: Sensor networks: Evolution, opportunities, and challenges. Proceedings of the IEEE 91(8), 1247–1256 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Melodia, T., Chowdhury, K.R.: A survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks (December 2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Melodia, T., Chowdhury, K.R.: A survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks. Computer Networks 51(4), 921–960 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hill, J.L.: System architecture for wireless sensor networks. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seema, A.: Blueprint for a low-cost piggyback wireless video sensor node/platform architecture. M.S. thesis, Arizona State University, Electrical Engineering, pp. 1–201 (Apr 2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong, W., Chen, C., Liu, X., Bu, J.: Providing OS support for wireless sensor networks: Challenges and approaches. IEEE Commun.Surveys & Tutorials, in print (2010), doi:10.1109/SURV.2010.032610.00045Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anastasi, G., Conti, M., Francesco, M.D., Passarella, A.: Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: A survey. Ad Hoc Networks 7(3), 537–568 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chandrakasan, A., Bowhill, W., Fox, F.: Design of High- Performance Microprocessor Circuits. Wiley, Chichester (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Parhi, K.: VlSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design And Implementation. Wiley, Chichester (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raghunathan, A., Jha, N.K., Dey, S.: High-Level Power Analysis and Optimization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1998)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agarwal, K., Singh, H., Sylvester, D., Nowka, K.: Enhanced leakage reduction techniques using intermediate strength power gating. IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr (VLSI) Syst. 15(11), 1215–1224 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yeap, G.: Practical low power digital VLSI design. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lymberopoulos, D., Savvides, A.: XYZ: a motion-enabled, power aware sensor node platform for distributed sensor network applications. In: Proc. Int. Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN), pp. 449–454 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Teixeira, T., Andreou, A.G., Culurciello, E.: Event-based imaging with active illumination in sensor networks. In: Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp. 644–647 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Culurciello, E., Andree, A.G.: ALOHA CMOS imager. In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp. 956–959 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akyildiz, I.F., Melodia, T., Chowdhury, K.R.: A survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks. Computer Networks 51(4), 921–960 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boost converter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boost_converter
  19. 19.
    Brooks, A., Makarenko, A., Kaupp, T., Williams, S., Durrant-Whyte, H.: Implementation of an indoor active sensor network. In: the Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Experimental Robotics, Singapore (June 2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Petrushin, V.A., Wei, G., Shakil, O., Roqueiro, D., Gershman, V.: Multiple-Sensor Indoor Surveillance System. In: The Proceedings of the 3rd Canadian Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV 2006), Québec city (June 2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krishnamurthy, L.: Design and Deployment of Industrial Sensor Networks: Experiences from a Semiconductor Plant and the North Sea. In: The Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 2005), San Diego, CA (November 2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang, C.F., Tseng, Y.C.: The Coverage Problem in a Wireless Sensor Network. In: The Proceedings of the ACM 9th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom 2003), San Diego, CA (September 2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meguerdichian, S., Koushanfar, F., Potkonjak, M., Srivastava, M.B.: Coverage problems in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. In: The Proceedings of the 20th International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2001), Anchorage, Alaska (April 2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ganesan, D., Cristescu, R., Beferull-Lozano, B.: Power-efficient sensor placement and transmission structure for data gathering under distortion constraints. In: The Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2004), Berkeley, CA (April 2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wireless sensor nodes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wireless_sensor_nodes
  26. 26.
    Base stations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/base_stations
  27. 27.
    Younis, M., Akkaya, K.: Strategies and Techniques for Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks: A SurveyGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Efrat, A., Har-Peled, S., Mitchell, J.S.B.: Approximation Algorithms for Two Optimal Location Problems in Sensor Networks. In: The Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems (Broadnets 2005), Boston, Massachusetts (October 2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu, J., Yang, S.: SMART: A Scan-based Movement Assisted Sensor Deployment Method in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: The Proceedings of the 24th International Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2005), Miami, FL (March 2005)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    Younis, M., Youssef, M., Arisha, K.: Energy-Aware management in Cluster-Based Sensor Networks. Computer Networks 43(5), 649–668 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Heo, N., Varshney, P.K.: Energy-Efficient Deployment of Intelligent Mobile Sensor Networks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Part A 35(1), 78–92 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heinzelman, W., Chandrakasan, A., Balakrishnan, H.: Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: The Proceeding of the Hawaii International Conference System Sciences (HICSS 2000), Hawaii (January 2000)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Younis, M., Bangad, M., Akkaya, K.: Base-Station Repositioning For Optimized Performance of Sensor Networks. In: The Proceedings of the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC-Fall 2003), Orlando, Florida (October 2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Akkaya, K., Younis, M.: Relocation of Gateway for Enhanced Timeliness in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: The Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Energy-Efficient Wireless Communications and Networks (EWCN 2004), in conjunction with the 23rd IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC 2004), Phoenix, Arizona (April 2004)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raghunathan, V., Schurghers, C., Park, S., Srivastava, M.: Energy-aware Wireless Microsensor Networks. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 40–50 (March 2002)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    CMOS image sensor with a low-power architecture, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7286180.html
  38. 38.
    Practical Low Power CPLD Design. A Lattice Semiconductor White Paper, Lattice Semiconductor, 5555 Northeast Moore Ct., Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 USA (August 2009), http://www.latticesemi.com

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sumit Kushwaha
    • 1
  • Vinay Kumar
    • 2
  • Sanjeev Jain
    • 2
  1. 1.ECE DepartmentS.H.I.A. Technology and SciencesAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.ECE DepartmentMotilal Nehru National Institute of TechnologyAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations