Challenges in Assessing Uranium-Related Health Risks: Two Case Studies for the Aquatic Exposure Pathway from South Africa – Part I: Guideline and Toxicity Issues and the Pofadder Case Study

  • Frank Winde
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


Comparing guidelines for U in drinking water from across the world reveals that recommended limits differ significantly. Furthermore, most current limits are based on nephrotoxic effects of U as found in animal experiments after short-term, high-dose U exposure and take not into account latest finding that U displays a much wider spectrum of toxic effects after long-term, low dose exposure. Epidemiological evidence from the Pofadder case study in South Africa suggests a link between elevated U levels in borehole water and increased incidences of leukemia in local residents.


International Atomic Energy Agency Uranyl Nitrate Spot Price Tolerable Daily Intake Borehole Water 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Winde
    • 1
  1. 1.Mine Water Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and DevelopmentNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

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