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Challenges in Assessing Uranium-Related Health Risks: Two Case Studies for the Aquatic Exposure Pathway from South Africa – Part I: Guideline and Toxicity Issues and the Pofadder Case Study

  • Frank Winde
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

Comparing guidelines for U in drinking water from across the world reveals that recommended limits differ significantly. Furthermore, most current limits are based on nephrotoxic effects of U as found in animal experiments after short-term, high-dose U exposure and take not into account latest finding that U displays a much wider spectrum of toxic effects after long-term, low dose exposure. Epidemiological evidence from the Pofadder case study in South Africa suggests a link between elevated U levels in borehole water and increased incidences of leukemia in local residents.

Keywords

International Atomic Energy Agency Uranyl Nitrate Spot Price Tolerable Daily Intake Borehole Water 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Winde
    • 1
  1. 1.Mine Water Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences and DevelopmentNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

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