Applications of Confocal Microscopy in the Study of Root Apparatus

  • Susanna Pollastri
  • Elisa Azzarello
  • Elisa Masi
  • Camilla Pandolfi
  • Sergio Mugnai
  • Stefano Mancuso


Confocal microscopy can be considered as one of the most important progress in optical microscopy within the last decades and has become a powerful investigation tool for molecular, cellular, and development biologist. In this chapter, the authors analyze the main uses of confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes for studying many aspects of root physiology. The developments of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent probes that can be applied, in vivo, to plant root cells, have improved new possibilities for imaging cellular components and activities. Moreover, the opportunity to create transgenic plants and cells permits the visualization of fluorescently labeled components in cells, with minimum invasive manipulation. The combination of all this techniques provides more information for the comprehension of physiological and developmental processes in plant roots. Finally, the use of confocal laser microscopy in these types of studies has several advantages: (1) it is simple, rapid, and accurate; (2) it is nonhazardous; (3) a proper use of all the equipment is helpful to not obtain artifacted images but reliable ones.


Nitric Oxide Salt Stress Confocal Laser Scan Microscopy Fluorescent Probe Root Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Pollastri
    • 1
  • Elisa Azzarello
    • 1
  • Elisa Masi
    • 1
  • Camilla Pandolfi
    • 1
  • Sergio Mugnai
    • 1
  • Stefano Mancuso
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant, Soil and EnvironmentUniversity of FlorenceSesto FiorentinoItaly
  2. 2.Dpt. Plant, Soil & EnvironmentUniversity of FirenzeSesto FiorentinoItaly

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