Combined Course Programmes Generation in Multi-agent e-Learning System Using Policy-Based HTN Planning

  • Pavel Nikolaev
  • Aladdin Ayesh
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6682)


As integration processes have been intensified in the area of higher education, they should be supported by information technologies. A Combined Course Programmes (CCP) generation mechanism based on HTN planning was developed for a multi-agent system, managing the distributed e-Learning environment. The limitations of HTN planning were overcome by XACML policy language, that was used for specification of preconditions. This improves the expressiveness and facilitates planning in a multi-domain environment supported by different experts. In order to improve the effectiveness of HTN planning in the multi-domain hierarchical environment, a domain refinement technique was designed. Its efficiency gains were confirmed by experiments.


Multi-agent e-Learning system Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning policy specification language refinement search 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pavel Nikolaev
    • 1
  • Aladdin Ayesh
    • 1
  1. 1.De Montfort UniversityLeicesterUK

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