Achieving Optimal Anonymity in Transferable E-Cash with a Judge
Electronic cash (e-cash) refers to money exchanged electronically. The main features of traditional cash are usually considered desirable also in the context of e-cash. One such property is off-line transferability, meaning the recipient of a coin in a transaction can transfer it in a later payment transaction to a third person without contacting a central authority. Among security properties, the anonymity of the payer in such transactions has been widely studied. This paper proposes the first efficient and secure transferable e-cash scheme with the strongest achievable anonymity properties, introduced by Canard and Gouget. In particular, it should not be possible for adversaries who receive a coin to decide whether they have owned that coin before. Our proposal is based on two recent cryptographic primitives: the proof system by Groth and Sahai, whose randomizability enables strong anonymity, and the commuting signatures by Fuchsbauer, which allow one to sign values that are only given as encryptions.
KeywordsTransferable e-cash anonymity Groth-Sahai proofs commuting signatures
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 7.Fuchsbauer, G.: Commuting signatures and verifiable encryption. In: Paterson, K.G. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2011. LNCS, vol. 6632, Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
- 10.Okamoto, T., Ohta, K.: Disposable zero-knowledge authentications and their applications to untraceable electronic cash. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 481–496. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
- 11.Okamoto, T., Ohta, K.: Universal electronic cash. In: Feigenbaum, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 1991. LNCS, vol. 576, pp. 324–337. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
- 12.De Santis, A., Yung, M.: Cryptographic applications of the non-interactive metaproof and many-prover systems. In: Menezes, A., Vanstone, S.A. (eds.) CRYPTO 1990. LNCS, vol. 537, pp. 366–377. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)Google Scholar
- 13.van Antwerpen, H.: Electronic Cash. PhD thesis, CWI (1990)Google Scholar