Explaining Negotiation: Obtaining a Shared Mental Model of Preferences
Negotiation support systems (NSSs) aim to assist people during the complex process of negotiation. We argue that having a shared mental model of the negotiation task enables and enhances the collaboration between the human negotiator and the NSS. This paper presents an analysis of negotiation that results in a set of concepts that a shared mental model of the user and the NSS should contain. Discrepancies between the individual mental models can arise for various reasons, such as the constructive nature of preferences. Explanation can increase user understanding of the NSS’s reasoning, allowing the user to detect and resolve discrepancies. We therefore propose using explanation to achieve and maintain sharedness. We present a framework that provides a means to generate content for such explanations, where we focus on the mental models of user and opponent preferences.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Harvard Business Essentials: Negotiation. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, Boston (2003)Google Scholar
- 2.Amgoud, L., Dimopoulos, Y., Moraitis, P.: A unified and general framework for argumentation-based negotiation. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, pp. 1–8. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
- 3.Cannon-Bowers, J., Salas, E., Converse, S.: Shared mental models in expert decision making teams. In: Current Issues in Individual and Group Decision Making, pp. 221–246 (1993)Google Scholar
- 4.Hindriks, K., Jonker, C.: Creating human-machine synergy in negotiation support systems: towards the pocket negotiator. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Working Conference on Human Factors and Computational Models in Negotiation, pp. 47–54. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
- 6.Mastenbroek, W.: Negotiating as emotion management. Theory, Culture & Society 16(4) (1999)Google Scholar
- 10.Roth-Berghofer, T., Richter, M.: On explanation. Künstliche Intelligenz 22(2), 5–7 (2008)Google Scholar
- 11.Thompson, L.: The mind and heart of the negotiator. Pearson Prentice Hall, NJ (2005)Google Scholar
- 12.Tintarev, N., Masthoff, J.: A survey of explanations in recommender systems. In: ICDE 2007 Workshop on Recommender Systems and Intelligent User Interfaces, pp. 801–810 (2007)Google Scholar
- 13.Ye, L., Johnson, P.: The impact of explanation facilities on user acceptance of expert systems advice. MIS Quarterly 157–172 (1995)Google Scholar