The Grammar of Graphics

  • Leland Wilkinson
Part of the Springer Handbooks of Computational Statistics book series (SHCS)


The Grammar of Graphics, or GOG, denotes a system with seven orthogonal components. By orthogonal, we mean there are seven graphical component sets whose elements are aspects of the general system and that every combination of aspects in the product of all these sets is meaningful. This sense of the word orthogonality, a term used by computer designers to describe a combinatoric system of components or building blocks, is in some sense similar to the orthogonal factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), where factors have levels and all possible combinations of levels exist in the ANOVA design. If we interpret each combination of features in a GOG system as a point in a network, then the world described by GOG is represented in a seven-dimensional rectangular lattice.


Statistical Graphic Algebraic Expression Graphic System Recursive Partitioning Graph Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SYSTAT Software Inc.ChicagoUSA

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