Approximate Inference for Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions

  • Stefano Bragaglia
  • Fabrizio Riguzzi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6489)


Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions (LPADs) are a promising language for Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming. In order to develop efficient learning systems for LPADs, it is fundamental to have high-performing inference algorithms. The existing approaches take too long or fail for large problems. In this paper we adapt to LPAD the approaches for approximate inference that have been developed for ProbLog, namely k-best and Monte Carlo.

k-Best finds a lower bound of the probability of a query by identifying the k most probable explanations while Monte Carlo estimates the probability by smartly sampling the space of programs. The two techniques have been implemented in the cplint suite and have been tested on real and artificial datasets representing graphs. The results show that both algorithms are able to solve larger problems often in less time than the exact algorithm.


Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming Logic Programs with Annotated Disjunctions ProbLog 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    De Raedt, L., Demoen, B., Fierens, D., Gutmann, B., Janssens, G., Kimmig, A., Landwehr, N., Mantadelis, T., Meert, W., Rocha, R., Santos Costa, V., Thon, I., Vennekens, J.: Towards digesting the alphabet-soup of statistical relational learning. In: NIPS*2008 Workshop on Probabilistic Programming (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    De Raedt, L., Kimmig, A., Toivonen, H.: ProbLog: A probabilistic Prolog and its application in link discovery. In: 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 2468–2473. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kimmig, A., Santos Costa, V., Rocha, R., Demoen, B., De Raedt, L.: On the efficient execution of probLog programs. In: Garcia de la Banda, M., Pontelli, E. (eds.) ICLP 2008. LNCS, vol. 5366, pp. 175–189. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meert, W., Struyf, J., Blockeel, H.: CP-logic theory inference with contextual variable elimination and comparison to BDD based inference methods. In: De Raedt, L. (ed.) ILP 2009. LNCS, vol. 5989, pp. 96–109. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Riguzzi, F.: A top down interpreter for LPAD and CP-logic. In: Basili, R., Pazienza, M.T. (eds.) AI*IA 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4733, pp. 109–120. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vennekens, J., Verbaeten, S., Bruynooghe, M.: Logic programs with annotated disjunctions. In: Demoen, B., Lifschitz, V. (eds.) ICLP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3132, pp. 95–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Bragaglia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fabrizio Riguzzi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.DEISUniversity of BolognaItaly
  2. 2.ENDIFUniversity of FerraraItaly

Personalised recommendations