The Eucalypts are a large group of more than 700 taxa from Australia and nearby areas. The taxonomy of this group has been evolving with three main genera now defined within the Australian Eucalypts; Eucalyptus, Corymbia and Angophora. The Eucalypts have spread worldwide in the last 200 years and are now the most widely planted hardwood trees in the tropical and subtropical parts of the word. The species have great value as timber, pulp for paper and as potential energy crops. Genomic resources for these species include genetic maps and gene sequences and will soon include complete genome sequences. Candidate genes for wood properties are being widely analyzed for variation at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level to determine associations of specific alleles with desirable characteristics. Wild Eucalypt genetic resources have the potential to continue to contribute to forest production worldwide.