Implementing Recovery in Low-Resource Stationary Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Bai Li
  • Lynn Margaret Batten
  • Robin Doss
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 154)


Implementation of certain types of protocols on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be difficult due to the architecture of the motes. Identification of these issues and recommendations for workarounds can be very useful for the WSN research community testing hardware.

In recent work, the authors developed and implemented clustering, reprogramming and authentication protocols involved in recovering WSNs with low resources. In attempting to integrate these protocols, several issues arose in the implementation phase connected to pre-set configurations of the motes used.

In this paper, we describe the issues arising in integrating our protocols using Zigbee with IEEE 802.15.4 and the reprogramming module Deluge, and compare our challenges and solutions with those faced by other researchers in this area. Finally, we provide recommendations for consideration by researchers who may in future consider integrating several protocols on these platforms.


Wireless sensor network recovery protocol implementation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Jeong, J., Culler, D.: Incremental network programming for wireless sensors. In: Proceedings of the First IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks IEEE SECON, pp. 25–33 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karlof, C., Sastry, N., Wagner, D.: TinySec: A link layer security architecture for wireless sensor networks. In: SenSys 2004, pp. 162–175. ACM, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koubaa, A., Cunha, A., Alves, M.: A time division beacon scheduling mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee cluster-tree wireless sensor networks. In: ECRTS 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krishnan, R., Starobinski, D.: Efficient Clustering Algorithms for Self-Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks. Journal of AD-Hoc Networks, 36–59 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Li, B., Doss, R., Batten, L., Schott, W.: Fast Recovery from Node Compromise in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: NTMS 2009, pp. 186–191 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, B., Batten, L., Doss, R.: Lightweight Authentication for Recovery in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: MSN 2009, pp. 465–471 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, B., Batten, L., Doss, R.: Network resilience in low-resource mobile WSNs. In: Proceedings of MobiSec 2010, paper 9047. ICST online publishing (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, M., Liu, Y.: Underground structure monitoring with wireless sensor networks. In: IPSN 2007, Cambridge, Mass, pp. 69–78 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maia, G., Guidoni, D.L., Aquino, A.L.L., Loureiro, A.A.F.: Improving an Over-the-Air Programming Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Small World Concepts. In: Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, pp. 261–267. ACM Press, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rabin, M.: Digitalized Signatures and Public-Key Functions as Intractable as Factorization. MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, 16 pages (January 1979)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shamir, A.: SQUASH – A new MAC with provable security properties for highly constrained devices such as RFID tags. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) FSE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5086, pp. 144–157. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stathopoulos, T., Heidemann, J., Estrin, D.: A remote code update mechanism for wireless sensor networks, Technical report, UCLA (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang, Q., Zhu, Y., Cheng, L.: Reprogramming wireless sensor networks: Challenges and approaches. IEEE Network Magazine 20(3), 48–55 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wasilewski, K., Branch, J., Lisee, M., Szymanski, B.: Self-healing routing: A study in efficiency and resiliency of data delivery in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of Conference on unattended Ground, Sea, and Air Sensor Technologies and Applications, Symposium on Defence & Security, Orlando Florida (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wu, J.: An enhanced approach to determine a small forward node set based on multipoint relay. In: Proc. IEEE Semi-Annual Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 2774–2777 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bai Li
    • 1
  • Lynn Margaret Batten
    • 1
  • Robin Doss
    • 1
  1. 1.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations