Semantics and Optimization of the SPARQL 1.1 Federation Extension

  • Carlos Buil-Aranda
  • Marcelo Arenas
  • Oscar Corcho
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6644)


The W3C SPARQL working group is defining the new SPARQL 1.1 query language. The current working draft of SPARQL 1.1 focuses mainly on the description of the language. In this paper, we provide a formalization of the syntax and semantics of the SPARQL 1.1 federation extension, an important fragment of the language that has not yet received much attention. Besides, we propose optimization techniques for this fragment, provide an implementation of the fragment including these techniques, and carry out a series of experiments that show that our optimization procedures significantly speed up the query evaluation process.


Resource Description Framework Service Operator Parse Tree Graph Pattern SPARQL Query 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Abiteboul, S., Hull, R., Vianu, V.: Foundations of Databases. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Angles, R., Gutierrez, C.: The Expressive Power of SPARQL. In: Sheth, A.P., Staab, S., Dean, M., Paolucci, M., Maynard, D., Finin, T., Thirunarayan, K. (eds.) ISWC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5318, pp. 114–129. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antonioletti, M., et al.: OGSA-DAI 3.0 - The Whats and the Whys. UK e-Science All Hands Meeting, pp. 158–165 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bizer, C., Schultz, A.: The Berlin SPARQL Benchmark. Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Syst. 5(2), 1–24 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buil, C., Corcho, O.: Federating Queries to RDF repositories. Technical Report (2010),
  6. 6.
    Durst, M,. Suignard, M.: Rfc 3987, Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs),
  7. 7.
    Haase, P., Mathäß, T., Ziller, M.: An evaluation of approaches to federated query processing over linked data. In: I-SEMANTICS (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Harris, S., Seaborne, A.: SPARQL 1.1 Query. W3C Working Draft (June 1, 2010),
  9. 9.
    Klyne, G., Carroll, J.J., McBride, B.: Resource description framework (RDF): Concepts and abstract syntax. W3C Recommendation (February 10, 2004),
  10. 10.
    Lynden, S., et al.: The design and implementation of OGSA-DQP: A service-based distributed query processor. Future Generation Computer Systems 25(3), 224–236 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pérez, J., Arenas, M., Gutierrez, C.: Semantics and complexity of SPARQL. TODS 34(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prud’hommeaux, E.: SPARQL 1.1 Federation Extensions. W3C Working Draft (June 1, 2010),
  13. 13.
    Prud’hommeaux, E., Seaborne, A.: SPARQL query language for RDF. W3C Recommendation (January 15, 2008),
  14. 14.
    Quilitz, B., Leser, U.: Querying distributed RDF data sources with SPARQL. In: Bechhofer, S., Hauswirth, M., Hoffmann, J., Koubarakis, M. (eds.) ESWC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5021, pp. 524–538. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schenk, S., Staab, S.: Networked graphs: a declarative mechanism for SPARQL rules, SPARQL views and RDF data integration on the Web. In: WWW, pp. 585–594 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmidt, M., Hornung, T., Lausen, G., Pinkel, C.: SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark. In: ICDE, pp. 222–233 (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schmidt, M., Meier, M., Lausen, G.: Foundations of SPARQL query optimization. In: ICDT, pp. 4–33 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stuckenschmidt, H., Vdovjak, R., Geert-Jan, H., Broekstra, J.: Index structures and algorithms for querying distributed RDF repositories. In: WWW, pp. 631–639 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Buil-Aranda
    • 1
  • Marcelo Arenas
    • 2
  • Oscar Corcho
    • 1
  1. 1.Ontology Engineering Group, Facultad de InformáticaUPMSpain
  2. 2.Department of Computer SciencePUCChile

Personalised recommendations