Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation

  • Hans Schaffers
  • Nicos Komninos
  • Marc Pallot
  • Brigitte Trousse
  • Michael Nilsson
  • Alvaro Oliveira
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6656)


Cities nowadays face complex challenges to meet objectives regarding socio-economic development and quality of life. The concept of “smart cities” is a response to these challenges. This paper explores “smart cities” as environments of open and user-driven innovation for experimenting and validating Future Internet-enabled services. Based on an analysis of the current landscape of smart city pilot programmes, Future Internet experimentally-driven research and projects in the domain of Living Labs, common resources regarding research and innovation can be identified that can be shared in open innovation environments. Effectively sharing these common resources for the purpose of establishing urban and regional innovation ecosystems requires sustainable partnerships and cooperation strategies among the main stakeholders.


Smart Cities Future Internet Collaboration Innovation Ecosystems User Co-Creation Living Labs Resource Sharing 


  1. 1.
    Kroes, N.: European Commissioner for Digital agenda, The critical role of cities in making the Digital Agenda a reality. Closing speech to Global Cities Dialogue Spring Summit of Mayors Brussels, 28 May (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., Nijkamp, P.: Smart cities in Europe. Series Research Memoranda 0048. VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eurocities: Strategic Policy Paper on Broadband in Cities (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eurocities: Cities and Innovation in Europe. Discussion paper (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Von Hippel, E.: Democratizing Innovation. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gibson, D.V., Kozmetsky, G., Smilor, R.W. (eds.): The Technopolis Phenomenon: Smart Cities, Fast Systems, Global Networks. Rowman & Littlefield, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Komninos, N.: Intelligent Cities: Innovation, knowledge systems and digital spaces. Taylor & Francis, London and New York (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Komninos, N.: Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks. Routledge, London and New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen-Ritzo, C.H., Harrison, C., Paraszczak, J., Parr, F.: Instrumenting the Planet. IBM Journal of Research & Development 53(3), 338–353 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    European Commission: Growing Regions, Growing Europe: Fifth progress report on economic and social cohesion. European Commission COM(2008) 371 final (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    European Commission: Future Media Internet: Research challenges and road ahead. DG Information Society and Media, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    European Commission: Future Media Networks: Research challenges 2010. DG Information Society and Media, Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belissent, J.: Getting clever about smart cities: New opportunities require new business models. Forrester for Ventor Strategy Professionals (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    European Commission, DG INFSO: Future Internet Research and Experimentation (September 2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chesbrough, H.W.: Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    O’Reilly, T., Battelle, J.: Web Squared: Web 2.0 Five Years On. Special Report, Web 2.0 Summit, Co-produced by O’Reilly & Techweb (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    European Commission, DG INFSO: Advancing and Applying Living Lab Methodologies (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ballon, P., Pierson, J., Delaere, S., et al.: Test and Experimentation Platforms for Broadband Innovation. IBBT/VUB-SMIT Report (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pallot, M., Trousse, B., Senach, B., Scapin, D.: Living Lab Research Landscape: From User Centred Design and User Experience Towards User Co-creation. Position Paper, First Living Labs Summer School (, Paris (August. 2010)
  21. 21.
    Schaffers, H., Garcia Guzmán, J., Navarro, M., Merz, C. (eds.): Living Labs for Rural Development. TRAGSA, Madrid (2010), Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Porter, M.: The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Free Press, New York (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Schaffers
    • 1
  • Nicos Komninos
    • 2
  • Marc Pallot
    • 3
  • Brigitte Trousse
    • 3
  • Michael Nilsson
    • 4
  • Alvaro Oliveira
    • 5
  1. 1.ESoCE NetItaly
  2. 2.Urenio, Aristotle University of ThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.INRIA Sophia AntipolisFrance
  4. 4.CDT Luleå University of TechnologySweden
  5. 5.Alfamicro LdaPortugal

Personalised recommendations