Computing Vertex-Surjective Homomorphisms to Partially Reflexive Trees
A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph H is a vertex mapping f:V G → V H such that f(u) and f(v) form an edge in H whenever u and v form an edge in G. The H-Coloring problem is to test whether a graph G allows a homomorphism to a given graph H. A well-known result of Hell and Nešetřil determines the computational complexity of this problem for any fixed graph H. We study a natural variant of this problem, namely the Surjective H -Coloring problem, which is to test whether a graph G allows a homomorphism to a graph H that is (vertex-)surjective. We classify the computational complexity of this problem when H is any fixed partially reflexive tree. Thus we identify the first class of target graphs H for which the computational complexity of Surjective H -Coloring can be determined. For the polynomial-time solvable cases, we show a number of parameterized complexity results, especially on nowhere dense graph classes.
KeywordsBipartite Graph Connected Graph Adjacent Vertex Graph Class Surjective Homomorphism
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