Determination of Nutation Coefficients from Lunar Laser Ranging
It was just July 20, 1969 when the first retro-reflector for Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) was deployed on the Moon by the Apollo 11 crew. From this day on, LLR is carried out to measure the distance between Earth and Moon. The complete set of observations is analysed and various parameters of the Earth–Moon system are determined by least-squares adjustment. Because of the long time span of data, long-term lunisolar nutation coefficients of the 18.6-year period (and the precession rate) can be determined well. But also other periods (182.62-day, 9.3-year, 365.26-day) can be fitted. The nutation coefficients were determined from LLR based on the models for precession and nutation according to the IAU Resolution 2006 and compared to the MHB2000 model of Mathews et al. (2002). In this paper, the corresponding preliminary results are discussed.
KeywordsEarth Orientation Parameter Moon System Lunar Laser Range Precession Rate Nutation Angle
Current LLR data are collected, archived and distributed under the auspices of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) (Pearlman et al. 2002). We acknowledge with thanks, that the more than 38 years of LLR data, used in these analyses, have been obtained under the efforts of personnel at the Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur in France, the LURE Observatory in Maui, Hawaii, the McDonald Observatory in Texas as well as the Apache Point Observatory (APOLLO) in New Mexico.
We would also like to thank the DFG, the German Research Foundation, which funded this study within the research unit FOR584 “Earth rotation and global dynamic processes”.
- Biskupek L, Müller J (2009) Lunar laser ranging and Earth orientation. In: Soffel M, Capitaine N (eds) Proceedings of the Journées 2008 “Systèmes de référence spatio-temporels”, pp 182–185Google Scholar
- Mathews, P.M., Herring, T.A. and Buffett, B.A. (2002). Modeling of nutation and precession: New nutation series for nonrigid Earth and insights into the Earth’s interior. J Geophys Res 107(B4):ETG 3-1. 10.1029/2001JB000390.Google Scholar
- McCarthy DD, Petit G (eds) (2004) IERS Conventions (2003), IERS Technical Note No. 32. Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
- Müller J, Shelus PJ (2007) Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) Network. ILRS Report 2005/2006 In: Noll C, Pearlman M (eds) NASA pp 2-2–2-3.Google Scholar
- Müller J, Williams JG, Turyshev SG (2008) Lunar laser ranging contributions to relativity and geodesy. In: Dittus H, Lämmerzahl C, Turyshev SG (eds) Lasers, clocks and drag–free control: exploration of relativistic gravity in space, vol 349. Springer, Berlin, pp 457–472Google Scholar
- Seidelmann PK (1982) 1980 IAU theory of nutation – the final report of the IAU Working Group on nutation. Celest Mech Dyn Astr 27:79–106Google Scholar
- Souchay J, Loysel B, Kinoshita H, Folgueira M (1999) Corrections and new developments in rigid earth nutation theory – III Final tables “REN-2000” including crossed-nutation and spin-orbit coupling effects. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, vol 135. pp 111–131Google Scholar