Data Hiding in a Halftone Image Using Hamming Code (15, 11)

  • Cheonshik Kim
  • Dongkyoo Shin
  • Dongil Shin
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6592)


This paper presents a data hiding technique for a halftone image. Each block of halftone bitmaps is transformed into a sequence of binary bits, and then regarded as a codeword. From the codeword, we can get a syndrome value. The XOR operation between a syndrome and 4-bits secret message is used to conceal 4-bits in the codeword. If the value of a XOR operation is not decimal zero, the position in a codeword should be flipped. In this way, one can hide a message. When every embedding procedure is finished, a sender transmits a stego halftone image to a receiver. A receiver can then extract secret data with a stego image, using a hamming code scheme. Using this procedure, we can conceal secret data in a halftone image and vice versa. Our proposed method is to hide 4-bits in a 4×4 block to flip a bit, is easy to implement, and achieves a high embedding capacity with good perceptual quality. It can be used to copyright and secret communications.


BTC Error Diffusion Dithering Hamming Code Halftone Images 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Guo, J.M.: Watermarking in dithered halftone images with embeddable cells selection and inverse halftoning. Signal Processing 88, 1496–1510 (2008)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pan, J.S., Luo, H., Lu, Z.H.: Look-up Table Based Reversible Data Hiding for Error Diffused Halftone Images. INFORMATICA 18(4), 615–628 (2007)MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tu, S.F., Hsu, C.S.: A BTC-based watermarking scheme for digital images. Information & security 15(2), 216–228 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tseng, H.W., Chang, C.C.: Hiding data in halftone images. INFORMATICA 16(3), 419–430 (2005)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Floyd, R.W., Steinberg, L.: An adaptive algorithm for spatial grey scale. In: Proceedings of the Society of Information Display, vol. 17, pp. 75–77 (1976)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ulichney, R.: A Review of Halftoning Techniques, Color Imaging: Device-Independent Color, Color Hardcopy, and Graphic Arts V. In: Proc. SPIE, vol. 3963 (January 2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delp, E., Mitchell, O.: Image Compression Using Block Truncation Coding. IEEE Transactions Communications 27, 1335–1342 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Niranjan, D.V., Thomas, D.K., Wilson, S.G., Brian, L.E., Alan, C.B.: Image Quality Assessment Based on a Degradation Model. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing 9(4) (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guo, J.M.: Improved block truncation coding using modified error diffusion. Electronics Letters 44, 462–464 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsai, P.: Histogram-based reversible data hiding for vector quantization-compressed images. Image Processing, IET 3, 100–114 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chao, R.M., Ho, Y.A., Chu, Y.P.: Data Hiding Scheme Using Covering Codes in Halftone Images Based on Error Diffusion. In: Asia-Pacific Services Computing Conference, APSCC 2008, pp. 1483–1488 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang, W., Wang, S., Zhang, X.: Improving Embedding Efficiency of Covering Codes for Applications in Steganography. IEEE Communications Letters 11, 680–682 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang, C.C., Kieu, T.D., Chou, Y.C.: A High Payload Steganographic Scheme Based on (7, 4) Hamming Code for Digital Images. In: Electronic Commerce and Security 2008 Symposium, pp. 16–21 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim, C.: Data Hiding Based on Compression Dithering Images. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 283, pp. 89–98 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheonshik Kim
    • 1
  • Dongkyoo Shin
    • 1
  • Dongil Shin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringSejong UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations