Climatic and Non Climatic Hazards: Asian Context

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
  • Sushil Gupta
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha
Chapter

Abstract

Disasters can occur from natural and/or technological hazards and their combinations. The natural hazards fall into: astronomical (solar flares, geomagnetic storms, supernovas, and the collision of celestial matter with the Earth); biological (disease, pestilence, genetic mutations, and conflicts between human and wild animals); hydrometerological (floods, fog, severe storms, hurricanes, storm surges, tornadoes, temperature extremes); and geologic (earthquakes, tsunamis, liquefaction, landslides, rock slides, avalanches, mud flows, volcanoes, tsunamis, lahars, fumaroles, and lava flows).

References

  1. Adger N.W, Arnell N.W and Tompkins E.L. 2005: Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change 15, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ADB (Asian Development Bank), 2001: Fire, Smoke, and Haze The ASEAN Response Strategy, PP 246Google Scholar
  3. Alistair Woodward, Simon Hales, Philip Weinstein, 1998: Climate change and human health in the Asia Pacific region: who will be most vulnerable?, Clim Res, Vol. 11: 31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bridger, C.A., F.P. Ellis, and H.L. Taylor, 1976: Mortality in St. Louis, Missouri, during heat waves in 1936, 1953, 1954, 1955 and 1966. Environmental Research, 12, 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cambell-Lendrum D, Woodruff R, 2006: Comparative risk assessment of the burden of disease from climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives;114:1935–41.Google Scholar
  6. Chokkalingam U, Suyanto S, Permana R.P, Kurniawan I, Mannes J, Darmawan A, Khususyiah N and Susanto R.H 2007: Community fire use, resource change, and livelihood impacts: the downward spiral in the wetlands of Southern Sumatra. Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 12, 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Crowe J.P. and Moore R.E, 1973: Physiological and behavioral responses of aged men to passive heating. Journal of Physiology, 236, 43–48.Google Scholar
  8. Daniel Murdiyarso and Louis Lebel, 2007: Southeast Asian forest and land fires: how can vulnerable ecosystems and peoples adapt to changing climate and fire regimes?, iLEAPS Newsletter 4, PP 28–29Google Scholar
  9. Ezio Todini, 1999: An operational decision support system for flood risk mapping, forecasting and management, Urban Water 1, 131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldammer J.P, 1995: Biomass Burning and the Atmosphere, Paper Presented at Forests and Global Climate Change: Forests and the Global Carbon Cycle; quoted in J. Levine, T. Bobbe, N. Ray, A. Singh, R. G. Witt, 1999: Wild land Fires and the Environment: A Global Synthesis, Division of Environmental Information, Assessment and Early Warning, United Nations Environment Programme, pp4Google Scholar
  11. Gover M, 1938: Mortality during periods of excessive temperature. Public Health Reports, 53, 1112–1143.Google Scholar
  12. Jones T.S, Liang A.P, Rilbourne E.M, Griffin M.R, Patriarca P.A, Wassilak S.G.G, Mullan R.J, Herrick R.F, Donnel H.D, Jr., Choi K; and Thacker S.B; 1982: Morbidity and mortality associated with the July 1980 heat wave in St. Louis and Kansas City, MO. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 3327–3330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Katayama K, and Momiyama-Sakamoto M, 1970: A biometeorological study of mortality from stroke and heart diseases: Its geographical differences in the United States. Meteorology and Geophysics, 21, 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lye M. and Ramal A, 1977: The effects of a heat wave on mortality rates in elderly inpatients. The Lancet, 1, 529–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Marland G, Boden T.A, Andres R.J, 2003: Global, regional, and national fossil fuel CO2 emissions. In: Trends: a compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge TN: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  16. McMichael A, Campbell-Lendrum D, Kovacs S, et al, 2004: Global climate change. [Ezzati M, Lopez A.D, Rodgers A, Murray C.J.L, eds.] Comparative quantifications of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Switzerland: WHO, 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Marmor M, 1975: Heat wave mortality in New York City, 1949 to 1970. Archives of Environmental Health, 30, 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Neville J. Abram, Michael K. Gagan, Malcolm T. McCulloch, John Chappell, Wahyoe S. Hantoro, 2003: Science, Vol. 301. no. 5635, pp. 952 – 955 DOI:  10.1126/science.1083841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oechsli F.W and Buechley R.W, 1970: Excess mortality associated with three Los Angeles September hot spells. Environmental Research, 3, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Poorest Areas Civil Society (PACS), 2008: Drought In India: Challenges & Initiatives, <www.Corecentre.Co.In/Database/Docs/Docfiles/Drought India.Pdf> Retrieved On 1 December 2010
  21. Persinger M.A, 1980: The Weather Matrix and Human Behavior, New York: Praeger, 327 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Paul S.K, Mahajan A.K, 1999: Malpa rock fall disaster, Kali valley, Kumaun Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 76, 485–487.Google Scholar
  23. Paul S.K, Bartarya S.K, Piyoosh Rautela, Mahajan A.K, 2000: Catastrophic mass movement of 1998 monsoons at Malpa in Kali Valley, Kumaun Himalaya (India), Geomorphology, 35, 169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patz J, Gibbs H, Foley J, Rogers J, Smith K, 2007: Climate change and global health: quantifying a growing ethical crisis. EcoHealth; 4:397–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Patz J, Campbell-Lendrum D, Gibbs H, Woodruff R, 2008: Health impacts assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making. Ann Rev Public Health;29:27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prüss-Üstün A and Corvalán C, 2006: Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease. Geneva: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  27. Rautela P, Thakur V.C, 1999: Landslide Hazard Zonation in Kaliganga and Madhyamaheshwar valleys of Garhwal Himalaya: a GIS based approach. Himalayan Geol. 20(2), 31–44.Google Scholar
  28. Rogot E, and Padgett S.J, 1976: Associations of coronary and stroke mortality with temperature and snowfall in selected areas of the United States, 1962–1966. American Journal of Epidemiology, 103, 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Scheidegger A.E, 1994: Hazards: singularities in geomorphic systems. Geomorphology 10, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Slaymaker O, 1996: Introduction. In: Slaymaker, O. (Ed.), Geomorphic Hazards. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. Sah M.P, Bist K.S, 1998: Catastrophic mass movement of August 1998 in Okhimatu area, Garchival Himalaya. Proc. Int. workshop-cum-training programme on Landslide Hazard, Risk Assessment and Damage Control for Sustainable Development, New Delhi. pp. 259–270.Google Scholar
  32. Sprung C.L, 1979: Hemodynamic alterations of heat stroke in the elderly. Chest, 75, 362–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stolle F, Chomitz K.M, Lambin E.F and Tomich T.P, 2003: Land use and vegetation fires in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management 179, 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tromp S.W, 1963: Medical biometeorology, New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  35. Trenberth K. E and Hoar T. J, 1996: The 1990–1995 El Niño-Southern Oscillation Event: Longest on Record, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trenberth K.E, and Hoar T.J, 1997: El Niño and Climate Change, Geophysics Research Letters, Vol. 24, no.23, pp.3057–3060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. UNDP, 2004: A Global Report Reducing Disaster Risk A Challenge For DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  38. Valdiya K.S, 1998: Catastrophic landslides in Uttaranchal, Central Himalaya. J. Geol. Soc. India 52, 483–486.Google Scholar
  39. WHO, 1948: Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19–22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948. <http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html> retrieved on 29, September 2010.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
    • 1
  • Sushil Gupta
    • 2
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha
    • 3
  1. 1.Biomedical Waste SectionKarnataka State Pollution Control BoardBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Risk Management Solutions IndiaNoidaIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DehliIndia

Personalised recommendations