Violence and Social Orders by North et al. (2009) continues the research program 3 that has engaged these three authors for many years. The key purpose of the book is 4 to understand the two great transitions that have occurred in human society. The first, 5 the agricultural revolution resulted in a transition fromhunter-gather society to what 6 North et al. (2009) call limited access society. This first transition occurred at various 7 times and places, but generally about 10KYBP. (1KYBP means 1000 years before 8 the present.) The second revolution, the social/industrial/technological revolution, 9 from limited access to what North et al. (2009) call open access, occurred initially 10 in a few societies, Britain and the United States, within a fairly brief period between 11 about 1600 and 1860, as discussed in Chap. 1.