Software-Level Instruction-Cache Leakage Reduction Using Value-Dependence of SRAM Leakage in Nanometer Technologies

  • Maziar Goudarzi
  • Tohru Ishihara
  • Hamid Noori
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6590)

Abstract

Within-die process variation is increasing in nanometer-scale process technologies. We observe that the same SRAM cell leaks differently under within-die process variations when storing 0 compared to 1; this difference can be up to 3 orders of magnitude at 60mV variation of threshold voltage (Vth). Thus, leakage can be reduced if most often the values that dissipate less leakage are stored in the cache SRAM cells. We take advantage of this fact to reduce instruction-cache leakage by presenting three binary-optimization and software-level techniques: we (i) reorder instructions within basic-blocks so that their bits better match the less-leaky state of their corresponding cache cells, (ii) statically change the register operands of the instructions with the same aim, and (iii) at boot time, initialize unused cache-lines to their corresponding least-leaky values. Experimental results show up to 54%, averaging 35%, leakage energy reduction at 60mV variation in Vth, and show that with technology scaling, this saving can reach up to 84% at 100mV Vth variation. Since our techniques are one-off and do not affect instruction cache hit ratio, this reduction is provided with only a negligible penalty, in rare cases, in data cache.

Keywords

Leakage power software techniques compiler optimization process variation power reduction cache memory instruction rescheduling 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maziar Goudarzi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tohru Ishihara
    • 3
  • Hamid Noori
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Computer Engineering DepartmentSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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