Cell Cycle Regulation by microRNAs in Stem Cells
The ability to self-renew and to differentiate into at least one-cell lineage defines a stem cell. Self-renewal is a process by which stem cells proliferate without differentiation. Proliferation is achieved through a series of highly regulated events of the cell cycle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs whose importance in these events is becoming increasingly appreciated. In this chapter, we discuss the role of miRNAs in regulating the cell cycle in various stem cells with a focus on embryonic stem cells. We also present the evidence indicating that cell cycle-regulating miRNAs are incorporated into a large regulatory network to control the self-renewal of stem cells by inducing or inhibiting differentiation. In addition, we discuss the function of cell cycle-regulating miRNAs in cancer.
We thank Dr. Ruohola-Baker for the permission to use the graph in the Fig. 19.3. Grant support to Blelloch laboratory includes National Institutes of Health K08 NS48118 and RO1 NS057221, California Institute of Regenerative Medicine Seed Grant RS1-0161-1, and the Pew Foundation. YMW was supported by a training grant from the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine.