Mechanisms of Transcriptional Activation in Eukaryotes
- 377 Downloads
Eukaryotic cells respond to growth, developmental and environmental cues in large part by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes. Befitting the wide range of these signals and the proper gene regulatory response, mechanisms of transcriptional activation in eukaryotes are impressively diverse. These mechanisms are built on the modular design of cis-acting DNA regulatory sequences and of trans-acting regulatory proteins, coupled with flexibility and diversity in the protein:protein interactions linking activators to chromatin-modifying enzymes and general transcription factors. This review summarizes and illustrates these principles of modular design and combinatorial logic underlying transcriptional activation in eukaryotes.
KeywordsGene regulation Transcription RNA polymerase II Chromatin Enhancer
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Felinski EA, Quinn PG (1999) The CREB constitutive activation domain interacts with TATA-binding protein-associated factor 110 (TAF110) through specific hydrophobic residues in one of the three subdomains required for both activation and TAF110 binding. J Biol Chem 274:11672–11678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ghosh S, Karin M (2002) Missing pieces in the NF-κB puzzle. Cell 109 Suppl: S81-96Google Scholar
- Kotani T, Miyake T, Tsukihashi Y, Hinnebusch AG, Nakatani Y, Kawaichi M, Kokubo T (1998) Identification of highly conserved amino-terminal segments of dTAFII230 and yTAFII145 that are functionally interchangeable for inhibiting TBP-DNA interactions in vitro and in promoting yeast cell growth in vivo. J Biol Chem 273:32254–32264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krogan NJ, Kim M, Tong A, Golshani A, Cagney G, Canadien V, Richards DP, Beattie BK, Emili A, Boone C, Shilatifard A, Buratowski S, Greenblatt J (2003) Methylation of histone H3 by Set2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is linked to transcriptional elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol 23:4207–4218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kumar KP, Akoulitchev S, Reinberg D (1998) Promoter-proximal stalling results from the inability to recruit transcription factor IIH to the transcription complex and is a regulated event. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA95:9767–9772Google Scholar
- Liu PQ, Rebar EJ, Zhang L, Liu Q, Jamieson AC, Liang Y, Qi H, Li PX, Chen B, Mendel MC, Zhong X, Lee YL, Eisenberg SP, Spratt SK, Case CC, Wolffe AP (2001) Regulation of an endogenous locus using a panel of designed zinc finger proteins targeted to accessible chromatin regions. Activation of vascular endothelial growth factor A. J Biol Chem 276:11323–11334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matys V, Fricke E, Geffers R, Gossling E, Haubrock M, Hehl R, Hornischer K, Karas D, Kel AE, Kel-Margoulis OV, Kloos DU, Land S, Lewicki-Potapov B, Michael H, Munch R, Reuter I, Rotert S, Saxel H, Scheer M, Thiele S, Wingender E (2003) TRANSFAC: transcriptional regulation, from patterns to profiles. Nucl Acids Res 31:374–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar