Regulation of Angiogenesis by Angiotensin II

  • J. Haendeler
  • S. Dimmeler
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 163 / 1)


The renin/angiotensin system can exert a double-edged role in angiogenesis signaling. The pro-angiogenic activity of angiotensin II is predominantly mediated by stimulation of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R), whereas the angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2R) inhibits angiogenesis. The pro-angiogenic activity of angiotensin II is believed to be predominantly mediated by stimulation of VEGF expression. Moreover, a transactivation of the growth promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the enhanced expression of pro-angiogenic transcription factors such as Cyr61 and Krüppel-like factor may contribute to the pro-angiogenic effects of angiotensin II. In contrast, stimulation of the AT2R inhibits angiogenesis by preventing endothelial cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis of endothelial cells, which counteracts angiogenesis. The apoptosis induction is mediated by an activation of phosphatases and subsequent down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.


Angiogenesis Apoptosis Cyr 61 Double-edged role Transactivation VEGF 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Haendeler
    • 1
  • S. Dimmeler
    • 1
  1. 1.Molecular Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine IVUniversity of FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany

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