Robust Audio Watermarking by Using Low-Frequency Histogram
In continuation to earlier work where the problem of time-scale modification (TSM) has been studied  by modifying the shape of audio time domain histogram, here we consider the additional ingredient of resisting additive noise-like operations, such as Gaussian noise, lossy compression and low-pass filtering. In other words, we study the problem of the watermark against both TSM and additive noises. To this end, in this paper we extract the histogram from a Gaussian-filtered low-frequency component for audio watermarking. The watermark is inserted by shaping the histogram in a way that the use of two consecutive bins as a group is exploited for hiding a bit by reassigning their population. The watermarked signals are perceptibly similar to the original one. Comparing with the previous time-domain watermarking scheme , the proposed watermarking method is more robust against additive noise, MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, etc.
KeywordsAdditive Noise Image Watermark Audio Signal Watermark Scheme Audio Watermark
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