Recent Developments in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations: Innovations in Manipulations and Endpoints

  • Robert M. BurgessEmail author
  • Kay T. Ho
  • Adam D. Biales
  • Werner Brack
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 15)


Whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods were developed primarily in the late 1990s and early 2000s in research programs dedicated to developing manipulations and endpoints to characterize and identify causes of toxicity to benthic freshwater and marine organisms. The focus of these methods included nonionic organic contaminants, cationic and anionic metals, and ammonia. This chapter discusses innovations in whole sediment TIE manipulations and endpoints developed primarily over the last 10 years. Innovations such as the use of supercritical fluid extraction as a Phase III manipulation, Phase II methods for identifying pyrethroid, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides, and the integration of genomic endpoints into the TIE structure are described. In North America, recently implemented environmental regulations require the diagnosis and identification of environmental stressors as part of the total maximum daily loading process. These regulations are likely to result in an increase in the conduct of whole sediments TIEs and encourage the development and application of more innovations.


Bioavailability Genomics Pesticides Supercritical fluid extraction Toxicity identification evaluation Whole sediment 



The authors appreciate the insightful technical reviews provided by David Katz, Monique Perron, Jonathan Serbst, and Wayne Munns on this manuscript. This is NHEERL-AED, Narragansett Contribution AED-10-028. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This report has been reviewed by the US EPAs Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Agency.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Burgess
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kay T. Ho
    • 1
  • Adam D. Biales
    • 2
  • Werner Brack
    • 3
  1. 1.National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology DivisionUS Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and DevelopmentNarragansettUSA
  2. 2.National Exposure Research Laboratory, Ecological Exposure Research DivisionUS Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and DevelopmentCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Effects-Directed AnalysisUFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental ResearchLeipzigGermany

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