A Decentralized Scheduling Algorithm for Time Synchronized Channel Hopping
Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH) is an existing medium access control scheme which enables robust communication through channel hopping and high data rates through synchronization. It is based on a time-slotted architecture, and its correct functioning depends on a schedule which is typically computed by a central node. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first scheduling algorithm for TSCH networks which both is distributed and which copes with a mobile nodes.
Two scheduling algorithms are presented. Aloha-based scheduling allocates one frequency channel for broadcasting advertisements for new neighbors. Reservation-based scheduling augments Aloha-based scheduling with a dedicated slot for targeted advertisements based on gossip information. A mobile ad-hoc network with frequent connectivity changes is simulated, and the performance of the two proposed algorithms is assessed against the optimal case. Reservation-based scheduling performs significantly better than Aloha-based scheduling, suggesting that the improved network reactivity is worth the increased algorithmic complexity and resource consumption.
Keywordstime-synchronized channel hopping mobile ad-hoc networks decentralized scheduling simulation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Tinka, A., Strub, I., Wu, Q., Bayen, A.M.: Quadratic Programming based data assimilation with passive drifting sensors for shallow water flows. International Journal of Control (to appear, 2010)Google Scholar
- 2.IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements. Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs), IEEE Std., Rev. 2006 (September 8, 2006)Google Scholar
- 3.IEEE P802.15.4e/D0.01 Draft Standard for Information technology Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks Specific requirements Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Amendment 1: Add MAC enhancements for industrial applications and CWPAN, IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Std. IEEE Std 802.15.4e, Rev. D0.01/r3 (September 13, 2009)Google Scholar
- 5.Buettner, M., Yee, G.V., Anderson, E., Han, R.: X-MAC: A Short Preamble MAC Protocol for Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 4th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), October 31-November 3. ACM, Boulder (2006)Google Scholar
- 6.Ye, W., Silva, F., Heidemann, J.: Ultra-Low Duty Cycle MAC with Scheduled Channel Polling. In: 4th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), November 1-3, pp. 321–334. ACM, Boulder (2006)Google Scholar
- 7.Watteyne, T., Mehta, A., Pister, K.: Reliability Through Frequency Diversity: Why Channel Hopping Makes Sense. In: 6th ACM International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN), Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, October 26-30 (2009)Google Scholar
- 8.Watteyne, T., Lanzisera, S., Mehta, A., Pister, K.: Mitigating Multipath Fading Through Channel Hopping in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), May 23-27. IEEE, Cape Town (2010)Google Scholar
- 9.Pister, K., Doherty, L.: TSMP: Time Synchronized Mesh Protocol. In: Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems (PDCS), Orlando, Florida, USA, November 16-18 (2008)Google Scholar
- 10.Doherty, L., Lindsay, W., Simon, J.: Channel-Specific Wireless Sensor Network Path Data. In: 16th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), August 13-16, pp. 89–94. IEEE, Turtle Bay Resort (2007)Google Scholar
- 11.HART Field Communication Protocol Specifications, Revision 7.1, DDL Specifications, HART Communication Foundation Std. (2008)Google Scholar
- 12.Gustafsson, D.: WirelessHART - implementation and evaluation on wireless sensors. Master’s thesis, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan (April 2009)Google Scholar
- 13.Song, J., Han, S., Mok, A.K., Chen, D., Lucas, M., Nixon, M., Pratt, W.: WirelessHART: Applying wireless technology in real-time industrial process control. In: IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, pp. 377–386 (2008)Google Scholar
- 14.ISA: ISA-100.11a-2009: Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications, International Society of Automation Std. (September 11, 2009)Google Scholar
- 16.CC2420, 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee-Ready RF Transceiver (Rev. B), Texas Instruments, Inc. (March 20, 2007), data Sheet SWRS041B [available online]Google Scholar