Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: History of Pharmacology
The first pharmacological investigations of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors were developed with the clinical efficacies of drugs isolated from coffee, cacao and tea but only later their relevant ingredients were identified as xanthines that act as PDE. With its diuretic, inotropic and bronchodilating clinical efficacy, use of theophylline anticipated the clinical goals, which were later approached with the first-generation of weakly selective PDE inhibitors in the period from 1980 to 1990. Pharmacological and clinical research with these early compounds provided a vast pool of information regarding desired and adverse actions – although most of these new drugs had to be discontinued due to severe adverse effects. The pharmacological models for cardiac, vascular and respiratory indications were analysed for their PDE isoenzyme profiles, and when biochemical and molecular biological approaches expanded our knowledge of the PDE superfamily, the purified isoenzymes that were now available opened the door for more systematic studies of inhibitors and for generation of highly selective isoenzyme-specific drugs. The development of simple screening models and clinically relevant indication models reflecting the growing knowledge about pathomechanisms of disease are summarised here for today’s successful application of highly selective PDE3, PDE4 and PDE5 inhibitors. The interplay of serendipitous discoveries, the establishment of intelligent pharmacological models and the knowledge gain by research results with new substances is reviewed. The broad efficacies of new substances in vitro, the enormous biodiversity of the PDE isoenzyme family and the sophisticated biochemical pharmacology enabled Viagra to be the first success story in the field of PDE inhibitor drug development, but probably more success stories will follow.