Advertisement

X-ray emission from isolated neutron stars

  • Sandro Mereghetti
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP)

Abstract

X-ray emission is a common feature of all varieties of isolated neutron stars (INS) and, thanks to the advent of sensitive instruments with good spectroscopic, timing, and imaging capabilities, X-ray observations have become an essential tool in the study of these objects. Non-thermal X-rays from young, energetic radio pulsars have been detected since the beginning of X-ray astronomy, and the long-sought thermal emission from cooling neutron star’s surfaces can now be studied in detail in many pulsars spanning different ages, magnetic fields, and, possibly, surface compositions. In addition, other different manifestations of INS have been discoveredwith X-ray observations. These new classes of high-energy sources, comprising the nearby X-ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars, the Central Compact Objects in supernova remnants, the AnomalousX-ray Pulsars, and the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters, now add up to several tens of confirmedmembers, plus many candidates, and allow us to study a variety of phenomena unobservable in “standard” radio pulsars.

Keywords

Neutron Star Radio Pulsar Spin Period Pulse Fraction Pulsar Wind Nebula 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. A. Abdo, et al.. Science, 325:840–, 2009.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. N. Aguilera, J. A. Pons, and J. A. Miralles. ApJL, 673:L167–L170, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. A. Alpar. ApJ, 554:1245–1254, 2001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. L. Aptekar, T. L. Cline, D. D. Frederiks, S. V. Golenetskii, E. P.Mazets, and V. D. Pal’shin. ApJL, 698:L82–L85, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.-L. Atteia,et al.. ApJL, 320:L105–L110, 1987.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. G. Baring and A. K. Harding. Astr. Space Sci., 308:109–118, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    W. Becker. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 91–+, 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Becker and J. Truemper. A&A, 326:682–691, 1997.ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Bernardini, et al.. A&A, 498:195–207, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Bhadkamkar and P. Ghosh. A&A, 506:1297–1307, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    V. Burwitz, F. Haberl, R. Neuh¨auser, P. Predehl, J. Trümper, and V. E. Zavlin. A&A, 399:1109–1114, 2003.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Camilo, S. M. Ransom, J. P. Halpern, and J. Reynolds. ApJL, 666:L93–L96, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. Camilo, S. M. Ransom, J. P. Halpern, J. Reynolds, D. J. Helfand, N. Zimmerman, and J. Sarkissian. Nature, 442:892–895, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Cea. A&A, 450:199–218, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Chakrabarty, M. J. Pivovaroff, L. E. Hernquist, J. S. Heyl, and R. Narayan. ApJ, 548:800– 810, 2001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Chatterjee, L. Hernquist, and R. Narayan. ApJ, 534:373–379, 2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. S. Cheng. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 481–+, 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Dall’Osso, G. L. Israel, L. Stella, A. Possenti, and E. Perozzi. ApJ, 599:485–497, 2003.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. De Luca. ArXiv e-prints, 712, 2007. 39. A. De Luca, P. A. Caraveo, S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo, and G. F. Bignami. Science, 313:814– 817, 2006.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. De Luca, S. Mereghetti, P. A. Caraveo, M. Moroni, R. P. Mignani, and G. F. Bignami. A&A, 418:625–637, 2004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. De Luca, R. P. Mignani, S. Zaggia, G. Beccari, S. Mereghetti, P. A. Caraveo, and G. F. Bignami. ApJ, 682:1185–1194, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. P. de Vries, J. Vink, M. M´endez, and F. Verbunt. A&A, 415:L31–L34, 2004.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. R. den Hartog, L. Kuiper, and W. Hermsen. A&A, 489:263–279, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. R. den Hartog, L. Kuiper, W. Hermsen, V. M. Kaspi, R. Dib, J. Kn¨odlseder, and F. P. Gavriil. A&A, 489:245–261, 2008.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Dib, V. M. Kaspi, and F. P. Gavriil. ApJ, 666:1152–1164, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Dib, V. M. Kaspi, and F. P. Gavriil. ApJ, 673:1044–1061, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    R. Dib, V. M. Kaspi, and F. P. Gavriil. ApJ, 702:614–630, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. C. Duncan and C. Thompson. ApJL, 392:L9–L13, 1992.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Enoto, et al.. ApJL, 693:L122–L126, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    ¨U. Ertan, K. Y. Eks¸i, M. H. Erkut, and M. A. Alpar. ApJ, 702:1309–1320, 2009.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. Esposito, M. Burgay, A. Possenti, R. Turolla, S. Zane, A. De Luca, A. Tiengo, G. L. Israel, F. Mattana, S. Mereghetti, M. Bailes, P. Romano, D. G¨otz, and N. Rea. 2009.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Esposito, G. L. Israel, N. Rea, H. A. Krimm, D. M. Palmer, N. Gehrels, S. D. B. Helmy, S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo, and D. Gotz. The Astronomer’s Telegram, 1763:1–+, 2008.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. Esposito, et al.. MNRAS, 405:1787–1795, 2010.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Esposito, et al. MNRAS, 390:L34–L38, 2008.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Esposito, S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo, L. Sidoli, M. Feroci, and P. Woods. A&A, 461:605– 612, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Esposito, et al.. ApJL, 690:L105–L109, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. et al. MNRAS, submitted Esposito.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. G. Fahlman and P. C. Gregory. Nature, 293:202–204, 1981.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    C.-A. Faucher-Gigu`ere and V. M. Kaspi. ApJ, 643:332–355, 2006.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Fern´andez and C. Thompson. ApJ, 660:615–640, 2007.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Feroci, et al.. ApJ, 596:470–476, 2003.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Frank, A. King, and D. J. Raine. Accretion Power in Astrophysics: Third Edition. 2002.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    B. M. Gaensler, et al.. ApJL, 680:L37–L40, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    F. P. Gavriil, M. E. Gonzalez, E. V. Gotthelf, V. M. Kaspi, M. A. Livingstone, and P. M. Woods. Science, 319:1802–, 2008.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    F. P. Gavriil, V. M. Kaspi, and P. M. Woods. Nature, 419:142–144, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. L. Gonthier, A. K. Harding,M. G. Baring, R.M. Costello, and C. L.Mercer. ApJ, 540:907– 922, 2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. E. Gonzalez, V.M. Kaspi, F. Camilo, B.M. Gaensler, andM. J. Pivovaroff. ApJ, 630:489– 494, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. V. Gotthelf, F. P. Gavriil, V. M. Kaspi, G. Vasisht, and D. Chakrabarty. ApJL, 564:L31– L34, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    E. V. Gotthelf and J. P. Halpern. ApJ, 632:1075–1085, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    E. V. Gotthelf and J. P. Halpern. 704, 2007.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    E. V. Gotthelf and J. P. Halpern. ApJL, 695:L35–L39, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    E. V. Gotthelf, J. P. Halpern, M. Buxton, and C. Bailyn. ApJ, 605:368–377, 2004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D. G¨otz, S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo, and P. Esposito. A&A, 449:L31–L34, 2006.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    E. G¨o˘g¨us¸, et al. ApJ, 718:331–339, 2010.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. E. Grindlay and S. Bogdanov. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 165–+, 2009.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    F. Haberl. Astr. Space Sci., pages 73–+, 2007.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    F. Haberl, C. Motch, D. A. H. Buckley, F.-J. Zickgraf, and W. Pietsch. A&A, 326:662–668, 1997.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    F. Haberl, et al.. A&A, 424:635–645, 2004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    F. Haberl, R. Turolla, C. P. de Vries, S. Zane, J. Vink, M. M´endez, and F. Verbunt. A&A, 451:L17–L21, 2006.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. P. Halpern and E. V. Gotthelf. ApJ, 618:874–882, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. P. Halpern and E. V. Gotthelf. ApJ, 709:436–446, 2010.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. P. Halpern, E. V. Gotthelf, F. Camilo, and F. D. Seward. ApJ, 665:1304–1310, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J. P. Halpern, E. V. Gotthelf, J. Reynolds, S. M. Ransom, and F. Camilo. ApJ, 676:1178– 1183, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    V. Hambaryan, G. Hasinger, A. D. Schwope, and N. S. Schulz. A&A, 381:98–104, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. K. Harding and J. K. Daugherty. ApJ, 374:687–699, 1991.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. M. Hohle, F. Haberl, J. Vink, R. Turolla, V. Hambaryan, S. Zane, C. P. de Vries, and M. M´endez. A&A, 498:811–820, 2009.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. M. Hohle, F. Haberl, J. Vink, R. Turolla, S. Zane, C. P. de Vries, and M. M´endez. A&A, submitted, 2010.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    J. E. Horvath. Astr. Space Sci., 308:431–434, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    A. I. Ibrahim, et al.. ApJL, 609:L21–L24, 2004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. L. Israel, S. Campana, S. Dall’Osso, M. P. Muno, J. Cummings, R. Perna, and L. Stella. ApJ, 664:448–457, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. L. Israel, S. Covino, L. Stella, S. Campana, F. Haberl, and S.Mereghetti. ApJL, 518:L107– L110, 1999.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. L. Israel, S. Mereghetti, and L. Stella. ApJL, 433:L25–L28, 1994.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    D. L. Kaplan and M. H. van Kerkwijk. ApJL, 635:L65-L68, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D. L. Kaplan, P. Esposito, S. Chatterjee, A. Possenti, M. A. McLaughlin, F. Camilo, D. Chakrabarty, and P. O. Slane. MNRAS, 400:1445–1450, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    D. L. Kaplan and M. H. van Kerkwijk. ApJL, 692:L62–L66, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    D. L. Kaplan and M. H. van Kerkwijk. ApJ, 705:798–808, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D. L. Kaplan, M. H. van Kerkwijk, and J. Anderson. ApJ, 660:1428–1443, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    V. M. Kaspi. Astr. Space Sci., 308:1–4, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    V. M. Kaspi, F. P. Gavriil, P. M. Woods, J. B. Jensen, M. S. E. Roberts, and D. Chakrabarty. ApJL, 588:L93–L96, 2003.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    V. I. Kondratiev, et al.. ApJ, 702:692–706, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    C. Kouveliotou, et al.. Nature, 393:235–237, 1998.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L. Kuiper and W. Hermsen. A&A, 501:1031–1046, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    L. Kuiper, W. Hermsen, and M. Mendez. ApJ, 613:1173–1178, 2004.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. C. Lamb, D. W. Fox, D. J. Macomb, and T. A. Prince. ApJL, 574:L29–L32, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    J. G. Laros, E. E. Fenimore, M.M. Fikani, R.W. Klebesadel, and C. Barat. Nature, 322:152– 153, 1986.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. S. Lazendic, P. O. Slane, B. M. Gaensler, P. P. Plucinsky, J. P. Hughes, D. K. Galloway, and F. Crawford. ApJL, 593:L27–L30, 2003.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    L. Levin, et al.. ArXiv e-prints, 2010.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    X.-D. Li. ApJL, 666:L81–L84, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    X.-H. Li, F.-J. Lu, and Z. Li. ApJ, 682:1166–1176, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. A. Livingstone, V. M. Kaspi, and F. P. Gavriil. ApJ, 710:1710–1717, 2010.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    M. Lyutikov and F. P. Gavriil. MNRAS, 368:690–706, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    E. P. Mazets, et al.. Astronomy Letters, 25:635–648, 1999.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    E. P. Mazets, S. V. Golenetskij, and Y. A. Guryan. Soviet Astronomy Letters, 5:343–+, 1979.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    E. P. Mazets, S. V. Golentskii, V. N. Ilinskii, R. L. Aptekar, and I. A. Guryan. Nature, 282:587–589, 1979.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    M. B. McGarry, B. M. Gaensler, S. M. Ransom, V. M. Kaspi, and S. Veljkovik. ApJL, 627:L137–L140, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    M. McLaughlin. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 41–+, 2009.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. A. McLaughlin, A. G. Lyne, E. F. Keane, M. Kramer, J. J. Miller, D. R. Lorimer, R. N. Manchester, F. Camilo, and I. H. Stairs. MNRAS, 400:1431–1438, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    M. A. McLaughlin, et al.. Nature, 439:817–820, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. A. McLaughlin, N. Rea, B. M. Gaensler, S. Chatterjee, F. Camilo, M. Kramer, D. R. Lorimer, A. G. Lyne, G. L. Israel, and A. Possenti. ApJ, 670:1307–1313, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    S. Mereghetti. A&A Rev., 15:225–287, 2008.ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    S. Mereghetti, A. De Luca, P. A. Caraveo, W. Becker, R. Mignani, and G. F. Bignami. ApJ, 581:1280–1285, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    S. Mereghetti, P. Esposito, A. Tiengo, R. Turolla, S. Zane, L. Stella, G. L. Israel, M. Feroci, and A. Treves. A&A, 450:759–762, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    S. Mereghetti, P. Esposito, A. Tiengo, S. Zane, R. Turolla, L. Stella, G. L. Israel, D. G¨otz, and M. Feroci. ApJ, 653:1423–1428, 2006.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    S. Mereghetti, D. G¨otz, I. F. Mirabel, and K. Hurley. A&A, 433:L9–L12, 2005.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    S. Mereghetti, et al.. ApJL, 696:L74–L78, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    S. Mereghetti, G. L. Israel, and L. Stella. MNRAS, 296:689–692, 1998.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    S. Mereghetti and L. Stella. ApJL, 442:L17–L20, 1995.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    S. Mereghetti, et al.. ApJ, 628:938–945, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo, and G. L. Israel. ApJ, 569:275–279, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    M. Morii, R. Sato, J. Kataoka, and N. Kawai. PASJ, 55:L45–L48, 2003.ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    C. Motch, F. Haberl, F.-J. Zickgraf, G. Hasinger, and A. D. Schwope. A&A, 351:177–184, 1999.ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    C. Motch, A. M. Pires, F. Haberl, A. Schwope, and V. E. Zavlin. A&A, 497:423–435, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    M. P. Muno, B. M. Gaensler, J. S. Clark, R. de Grijs, D. Pooley, I. R. Stevens, and S. F. Portegies Zwart. MNRAS, 378:L44–L48, 2007.ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    C.-Y. Ng, P. O. Slane, B. M. Gaensler, and J. P. Hughes. ApJ, 686:508–519, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    L. Nobili, R. Turolla, and S. Zane. MNRAS, 386:1527–1542, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    L. Nobili, R. Turolla, and S. Zane. MNRAS, 389:989–1000, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    R. Ouyed, D. Leahy, and B. Niebergal. A&A, 473:357–368, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    B. Paczynski. Acta Astronomica, 42:145–153, 1992.ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    D. M. Palmer, et al. Nature, 434:1107–1109, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    S. Park, K. Mori, O. Kargaltsev, P. O. Slane, J. P. Hughes, D. N. Burrows, G. P. Garmire, and G. G. Pavlov. ApJL, 653:L37–L40, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    G. G. Pavlov and G. J. M. Luna. ApJ, 703:910–921, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    G. G. Pavlov, D. Sanwal, B. Kızıltan, and G. P. Garmire. ApJL, 559:L131–L134, 2001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    G. G. Pavlov, D. Sanwal, and M. A. Teter. In F. Camilo and B. M. Gaensler, editors, Young Neutron Stars and Their Environments, volume 218 of IAU Symposium, pages 239–+, 2004.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    R. Perna, L. Hernquist, and R. Narayan. ApJ, 541:344–350, 2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    R. Petre, C. M. Becker, and P. F. Winkler. ApJL, 465:L43+, 1996.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    A. M. Pires, C. Motch, R. Turolla, A. Treves, and S. B. Popov. A&A, 498:233–240, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. J. Pivovaroff, V. M. Kaspi, and F. Camilo. ApJ, 535:379–384, 2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    F. Pizzolato, M. Colpi, A. De Luca, S. Mereghetti, and A. Tiengo. ArXiv e-prints, 803, 2008.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    A. Possenti, R. Cerutti, M. Colpi, and S. Mereghetti. A&A, 387:993–1002, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    N. Rea, et al. MNRAS, 396:2419–2432, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    N. Rea, A. Tiengo, S. Mereghetti, G. L. Israel, S. Zane, R. Turolla, and L. Stella. ApJL, 627:L133–L136, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    N. Rea, S. Zane, R. Turolla, M. Lyutikov, and D. G¨otz. ApJ, 686:1245–1260, 2008.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    N. Rea, et al. ApJL, 703:L41–L45, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    S. P. Reynolds, et al.. ApJL, 639:L71–L74, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    S. P. Reynolds, K. J. Borkowski, U. Hwang, I. Harrus, R. Petre, and G. Dubner. ApJL, 652:L45–L48, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    R. E. Rutledge, D. B. Fox, and A. H. Shevchuk. ApJ, 672:1137–1143, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    S. Safi-Harb and H. S. Kumar. ApJ, 684:532–541, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    F. D. Seward, P. A. Charles, and A. P. Smale. ApJ, 305:814–816, 1986.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    A. S. H. Shevchuk, D. B. Fox, and R. E. Rutledge. ApJ, 705:391–397, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    M. Sugizaki, F. Nagase, K. Torii, K. Kinugasa, T. Asanuma, K. Matsuzaki, K. Koyama, and S. Yamauchi. PASJ, 49:L25–L30, 1997.ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    C. R. Tam, V. M. Kaspi, B. M. Gaensler, and E. V. Gotthelf. ApJ, 652:548–553, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    C. Thompson and A. M. Beloborodov. ApJ, 634:565–569, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    C. Thompson and R. C. Duncan. MNRAS, 275:255–300, 1995.ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    C. Thompson and R. C. Duncan. ApJ, 473:322–342, 1996.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    C. Thompson, M. Lyutikov, and S. R. Kulkarni. ApJ, 574:332–355, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    W.W. Tian, Z. Li, D. A. Leahy, J. Yang, X. J. Yang, R. Yamazaki, and D. Lu. ApJ, 712:790– 796, 2010.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    A. Tiengo, P. Esposito, and S. Mereghetti. ApJL, 680:L133–L136, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    A. Tiengo, et al.. MNRAS, pages L295+, 2009.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    A. Tiengo, P. Esposito, S. Mereghetti, N. Rea, L. Stella, G. L. Israel, R. Turolla, and S. Zane. A&A, 440:L63–L66, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    A. Tiengo and S. Mereghetti. ApJL, 657:L101–L104, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    A. Tiengo, S. Mereghetti, R. Turolla, S. Zane, N. Rea, L. Stella, and G. L. Israel. A&A, 437:997–1005, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    M. L. Turner, R. E. Rutledge, R. Letcavage, A. S. H. Shevchuk, and D. B. Fox. ArXiv eprints, 2010.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    R. Turolla. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 141–+, 2009.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    A. J. van der Horst, et al.. ApJL, 711:L1–L6, 2010.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    M. H. van Kerkwijk and D. L. Kaplan. Astr. Space Sci., 308:191–201, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    M. H. van Kerkwijk, D. L. Kaplan, G. G. Pavlov, and K.Mori. ApJL, 659:L149–L152, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    M. H. van Kerkwijk and D. L. Kaplan. ApJL, 673:L163–L166, 2008.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    G. Vasisht and E. V. Gotthelf. ApJL, 486:L129+, 1997.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    G. Vasisht, E. V. Gotthelf, K. Torii, and B. M. Gaensler. ApJL, 542:L49–L52, 2000.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    F. M. Walter. ApJ, 549:433–440, 2001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    P. M. Woods, C. Kouveliotou, M. H. Finger, E. Göğüs¸, C. A. Wilson, S. K. Patel, K. Hurley, and J. H. Swank. ApJ, 654:470–486, 2007.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    P. M. Woods, et al.. ApJ, 629:985–997, 2005.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. M. Woods, et al.. ApJL, 524:L55–L58, 1999.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    P. M. Woods, et al.. ApJL, 519:L139–L142, 1999.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    P. M. Woods and C. Thompson. Compact stellar X-ray sources, p.547, 2006.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    R. Xu. Advances in Space Research, 40:1453–1459, 2007.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    L. Zampieri, et al.. A&A, 378:L5–L9, 2001.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    S. Zane, A. de Luca, R. P. Mignani, and R. Turolla. A&A, 457:619–622, 2006.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    S. Zane, N. Rea, R. Turolla, and L. Nobili. MNRAS, 398:1403–1413, 2009.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    V. E. Zavlin. In W. Becker, editor, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, volume 357 of Astrophysics and Space Science Library, pages 181–+, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INAF, IASF-MilanoMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations