Multi-layer Markup and Ontological Structures in Akoma Ntoso

  • Gioele Barabucci
  • Luca Cervone
  • Monica Palmirani
  • Silvio Peroni
  • Fabio Vitali
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6237)


The XML documents that represent legal resources contain information and legal knowledge that belong to many distinct conceptual layers. This paper shows how the Akoma Ntoso standard keeps these layers well separated while providing ontological structures on top of them. Additionally, this paper illustrates how Akoma Ntoso allows multiple interpretations, provided by different agents, over the same set of texts and concepts and how current semantic technologies can use these interpretations to reason on the underlying legal texts.


Resource Description Framework Naming Convention Legal Document Legal Text Semantic Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Boag, S., Berglund, A., Kay, M., Robie, J., Siméon, J., Fernández, M.F., Chamberlin, D.: XML Path Language (XPath) 2.0. Recommendation. W3C (January 2007),, Latest version available at
  2. 2.
    Boer, A., Hoekstra, R., de Maat, E., Hupkes, E., Vitali, F., Palmirani, M., Rátai, B.: CEN Metalex Workshop Agreement (2009-08-28 proposal) (August 2009),
  3. 3.
    Carroll, J.J., Klyne, G.: Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax. Recommendation, W3C (Febuary 2004),, Latest version available at,
  4. 4.
    Connolly, D.: Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL). Recommendation, W3C (September 2007),, Latest version available,
  5. 5.
    Gordon, T.F., Governatori, G., Rotolo, A.: Rules and Norms: Requirements for Rule Interchange Languages in the Legal Domain. In: Governatori, G., Hall, J., Paschke, A. (eds.) RuleML 2009. LNCS, vol. 5858, pp. 282–296. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gordon, T.F.: Constructing Legal Arguments with Rules in the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF). In: Computable Models of the Law: Languages, Dialogues, Games, Ontologies, pp. 162–184 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hirtle, D., Boley, H., Grosof, B., Kifer, M., Sintek, M., Tabet, S., Wagner, G.: Schema Specification of RuleML 0.91 (August 2006),
  8. 8.
    IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Functional requirements for bibliographic records: final report. K. G. Saur (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kay, M.: XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 2.0. Recommendation. W3C (January 2007),, Latest version available at
  10. 10.
    Lupo, C., Vitali, F., Francesconi, E., Palmirani, M., Winkels, R., de Maat, E., Boer, A., Mascellani, P.: General XML format(s) for legal sources. Estrella European Project IST-2004-027655 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Oliveira Lima, A., Palmirani, M., Vitali, F.: Moving in the Time: An Ontology for Identifying Legal Resources. In: Computable Models of the Law, Languages, Dialogues, Games, Ontologies, pp. 71–85 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Palmirani, M., Benigni, F.: Norma-System: A Legal Information System for Managing Time. In: V Legislative XML Workshop, pp. 205–224 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Palmirani, M., Contissa, G., Rubino, R.: Fill the gap in the legal knowledge modelling. In: Governatori, G., Hall, J., Paschke, A. (eds.) RuleML 2009. LNCS, vol. 5858, pp. 305–314. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Presutti, V., Gangemi, A.: Content ontology design patterns as practical building blocks for web ontologies. In: Li, Q., Spaccapietra, S., Yu, E., Olivé, A. (eds.) ER 2008. LNCS, vol. 5231, pp. 128–141. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Presutti, V., Gangemi, A., David, S., de Cea, G.A., Suárez-Figueroa, M.C., Montiel-Ponsoda, E., Poveda, M.: A Library of Ontology Design Patterns. NeOn project deliverable D2.5.1 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vitali, F., Palmirani, M.: Akoma Ntoso: Naming Conventions,
  17. 17.
    Vitali, F., Palmirani, M.: Akoma Ntoso: Potential users,
  18. 18.
    W3C OWLWorking Group: OWL 2Web Ontology Language Document Overview. Recommendation, W3C (November 2009),, Latest version available at

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gioele Barabucci
    • 1
  • Luca Cervone
    • 1
  • Monica Palmirani
    • 1
  • Silvio Peroni
    • 1
  • Fabio Vitali
    • 1
  1. 1.Università degli studi di BolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations