Animal Models in Overactive Bladder Research

Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 2011)

Abstract

Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a symptom-based diagnosis characterised by the presence of urinary urgency. It is highly prevalent and overlaps with the presence of bladder contractions during urine storage, which characterises the urodynamic diagnosis of detrusor overactivity. Animal models are needed to understand the pathophysiology of OAB, but the subjective nature of the symptomcomplex means that interpretation of the findings in animals requires caution. Because urinary urgency cannot be ascertained in animals, surrogate markers such as frequency, altered toileting areas, and non-micturition contractions have to be used instead. No model can recapitulate the subjective, objective, and related factors seen in the clinical setting. Models used include partial bladder outlet obstruction, the spontaneous hypertensive rat, the hyperlipidaemic rat, various neurological insults and some gene knock-outs. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are discussed in the context of the inherent difficulties of extrapolating subjective symptoms in animals.

Keywords

Adenosine triphosphate Animal models Detrusor overactivity Knock-out studies Nitric oxide Oestrogen Overactive bladder syndrome Prostaglandin Transgenic Urgency Uroplakin 

Abbreviations

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

BOO

Bladder outlet obstruction

BPE

Benign prostatic enlargement

COX

Cyclooxygenase enzyme

DO

Detrusor overactivity

DSD

Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia

EAE

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

EP

Family of G-protein coupled receptors

ER

Oestrogen receptor

ICS

International Continence Society

MCA

Middle cerebral artery

MPTP

Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

MS

Multiple sclerosis

NANC

Non-cholinergic non-adrenergic

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

nNOS

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase

OAB

Overactive bladder syndrome

P2X

Purinergic receptor

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

SHR

Spontaneous hypertensive rat

VR-1

Vanilloid receptor type 1

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bristol Urological InstituteSouthmead HospitalBristolUK

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