The Asian Species of Apis

  • Sarah E. RadloffEmail author
  • H. R. Hepburn
  • Michael S. Engel


The history of the systematics of the Asian honeybee species is given, including discussions of paradigm shifts in the definition of species as earlier taxonomic methods evolved and were gradually replaced by an emphasis on populations, the statistical distributions of morphological characters and the reconstruction of evolutionary lineages. The limits of Asian species have been defined using principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analyses and nearest neighbour procedures, together with DNA characteristics, behaviour and nesting. This review presents a unified and coherent account of the Asian honeybees, based on the advances of the last three decades.


Species Concept Morphometric Character Abdominal Tergite Biological Species Concept Mating Flight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah E. Radloff
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. R. Hepburn
    • 2
  • Michael S. Engel
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of StatisticsRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and EntomologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Division of Entomology, Natural History MuseumUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

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