Advertisement

Using SLA Mapping to Increase Market Liquidity

  • Marcel Risch
  • Ivona Brandic
  • Jörn Altmann
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6275)

Abstract

Research into computing resource markets has mainly considered the allocative fairness of market mechanisms. It has not been discussed how a large variety of resource types influences the market liquidity. Markets containing large numbers of buyers and sellers for heterogeneous resources suffer from a low likelihood of matching offers and requests. Traders therefore have the high risk of not being able to trade resources. We suggest a solution that derives SLA templates from a large number of heterogeneous SLAs in the market and, by using these templates instead of the original SLAs, facilitates SLA mapping. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated through simulation results and a comparison with an alternative approach, in which SLAs are predefined.

Keywords

Service level agreements Cloud computing commodity goods SLA matching market liquidity market mechanisms SLA matching 

References

  1. 1.
    Buyya, R., Vazhkudai, S.: Compute Power Market: Towards a Market-Oriented Grid. In: First IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, CCGrid, p. 574 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buyya, R., Abramson, D., Giddy, J.: An Economy Grid Architecture for Service-Oriented Grid Computing. In: 10th IEEE International Heterogeneous Computing Workshop, HCW 2001. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The SORMA project (2009), http://sorma-project.org/
  4. 4.
    Nou, R., Julia, F., Guitart, J., Torres, J.: Dynamic Resource Provisioning for Self-adaptive Dynamic Heterogeneous workloads in SMP Hosting Platforms. In: International Conference on e-Business (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Amar, L., Mualem, A., Stoesser, J.: On the Importance of Migration for Fairness in Online Grid Markets. In: International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Amar, L., Barak, A., Levy, E., Okun, M.: An On-line Algorithm for Fair-Share Node Allocations in a Cluster. In: IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid, CCGRID (2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neumann, D., Stoesser, J., Weinhardt, C.: Bridging the Grid Adoption Gap – Developing a Roadmap for Trading Grids. In: Bled eConference, Merging and Emerging Technologies, Processes, and Institutions (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schnizler, B., Neumann, D., Veit, D., Weinhardt, C.: Trading Grid Services - A Multi-Attribute Combinatorial Approach. European Journal of Operational Research 187(3), 943–961 (2008)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Waldspurger, C.A., Hogg, T., Huberman, B.A., Kephart, J.O., Stornetta, W.S.: Spawn: A Distributed Computational Economy. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 18(2), 103–117 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lai, K., Rasmusson, L., Adar, E., Zhang, L., Huberman, B.A.: Tycoon: An Implementation of a Distributed, Market-Based Resource Allocation System. Multiagent Grid Systems 1(3), 169–182 (2005)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    XenSource, Inc. (2009), http://xen.org/
  12. 12.
    Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) (2009), http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/
  13. 13.
    Tsunamic Technologies Inc. (2008), http://www.clusterondemand.com/
  14. 14.
    Google Apps (March 2009), http://www.google.com/apps/
  15. 15.
    Salesforce.com (March 2009), http://www.salesforce.com
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Amazon EC2 Instance Types (2008), http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/
  19. 19.
    Samuelson, P.A., Nordhaus, W.D.: Economics, 18th edn. McGraw-Hill/Irwin (July 2004), ISBN 0072872055Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Altmann, J., Courcoubetis, C., Stamoulis, G.D., Dramitinos, M., Rayna, T., Risch, M., Bannink, C.: GridEcon - A Market Place for Computing Resources. In: Altmann, J., Neumann, D., Fahringer, T. (eds.) GECON 2008. LNCS, vol. 5206, pp. 185–196. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Weng, C., Lu, X., Xue, G., Deng, Q., Li, M.: A Double Auction Mechanism for Resource Allocation on Grid Computing Systems. In: Jin, H., Pan, Y., Xiao, N., Sun, J. (eds.) GCC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3251, p. 269. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kant, U., Grosu, D.: Double Auction Protocols for Resource Allocation in Grids. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC 2005), vol. 1(1), pp. 366–371. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (April 2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weng, C., Li, M., Lu, X.: Grid Resource Management Based on Economic Mechanisms. Journal of Supercomputing 42(2), 181–199 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    European Energy Exchange (2008), http://www.eex.com/en/
  25. 25.
    Dobson, G., Sanchez-Macian, A.: Towards Unified QoS/SLA Ontologies. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Services Computing Workshops, SCW 2006, Chicago, Illinois, USA, pp. 18–22 (September 2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oldham, N., Verma, K., Sheth, A.P., Hakimpour, F.: Semantic WS-Agreement Partner Selection. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2006, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK (May 2006)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ardagna, D., Giunta, G., Ingraa, N., Mirandola, R., Pernici, B.: QoS-Driven Web Services Selection in Autonomic Grid Environments. In: International Conference Grid Computing, High Performance and Distributed Applications, GADA 2006, France (November 2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koller, B., Schubert, L.: Towards Autonomous SLA Management Using a Proxy-Like Approach. In: Multiagent Grid Systems, vol. 3(3). IOS Press, The Netherlands (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brandic, I., Music, D., Dustdar, S.: Service Mediation and Negotiation Bootstrapping as First Achievements Towards Self-Adaptable Grid and Cloud Services. In: Grids Meet Autonomic Computing Workshop, GMAC 2009. In conjunction with the 6th International Conference on Autonomic Computing and Communications, Barcelona, Spain (June 2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Risch, M., Altmann, J.: Enabling Open Cloud Markets Through WS-Agreement Extensions. In: Service Level Agreements in Grids Workshop, in conjunction with GRID 2009, Banff, Canada. CoreGRID Springer Series (October 2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcel Risch
    • 1
  • Ivona Brandic
    • 2
  • Jörn Altmann
    • 1
  1. 1.TEMEP, Department of Industrial Engineering, College of EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Information Systems InstituteVienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations