A Meta Model for Artefact-Orientation: Fundamentals and Lessons Learned in Requirements Engineering

  • Daniel Méndez Fernández
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
  • Marco Kuhrmann
  • Manfred Broy
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6395)


Requirements Engineering (RE) processes are highly volatile due to dependencies on customers’ capabilities or used process models, both complicating a standardised RE process. A promising solution is given by artefact-orientation that emphasises the results rather than dictating a strict development process. At such a basis one is able to incorporate domain-specific methods for producing artefacts without having to take into account the variability of process definitions. Although artefacts are known to support customisable development processes, there still is no common agreement about the structure and semantics of artefact-based methodologies. In this paper we discuss different interpretations of the term artefact considering aspects like process integration capabilities and necessities within individual project environments. We contribute a meta model for artefact-orientation that is inferred from two RE models elaborated within industrial cooperation projects of our research group. We conclude with a discussion of performed case studies and ongoing work.


Requirement Engineering Object Constraint Language Requirement Engineer Meta Model Content Category 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications. IEEE Std 830-1998Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rombach, D.: Integrated Software Process and Product Lines. In: Li, M., Boehm, B., Osterweil, L.J. (eds.) SPW 2005. LNCS, vol. 3840, pp. 83–90. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Greenfield, J., Short, K.: Software Factories. Wiley and Sons, Chichester (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Robertson, J., Robertson, S.: Volere Requirements Specification Templates-Edition 11 (August 2007),
  5. 5.
    Geisberger, E., Broy, M., Berenbach, B., Kazmeier, J., Paulish, D., Rudorfer, A.: Requirements Engineering Reference Model. Technische Universität München (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gronback, R.: Eclipse Modeling Project. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steinberg, D., Budinsky, F., Paternostro, M., Merks, E.: EMF -Eclipse Modeling Framework. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schätz, B.: The ODL Operation Definition Language and the Autofocus/quest Application Framework AQUA. Technische Universität München (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ameluxen, C., Rötschke, T., Schürr, A.: Graph Transformations with MOF 2.0. In: 3rd International Fujaba Days (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Managing Successful Projects with Prince 2. Office of Government and Commerce (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuhrmann, M., Kalus, G., Chroust, G.: Tool-Support for Software Development Processes. In: Social, Managerial, and Organizational Dimensions of Enterprise Information Systems. IGI Global (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penzenstadler, B., Sikora, E., Pohl, K.: Guiding Requirements Modelling in the Embedded Systems Domain with an Artefact Reference Model. In: REFSQ (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    van Lamsweerde, A.: Requirements Engineering: From Craft to Discipline. In: SIGSOFT 2008/FSE-16: Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering, pp. 238–249. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cockburn, A.: Writing Effective Use Cases. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Davis, A.M.: Software Requirements: Objects, Functions, and States. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River (1993)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schätz, B., Pretschner, A., Huber, F., Philipps, J.: Model-Based Development of Embedded Systems. In: Bruel, J.-M., Bellahsène, Z. (eds.) OOIS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2426, pp. 298–311. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schätz, B.: Model-Based Development of Software Systems: From Models to Tools. Habilitation, Technische Universität München (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Endres, A., Rombach, H.: A Handbook of Software and Systems Engineering: Empirical Observations, Laws and Theories. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2003)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Broy, M., Schätz, B., Wild, D., Feilkas, M., Hartmann, J., Gruler, A., Penzenstadler, B., Grünbauer, J., Harhurin, A.: Umfassendes Architekturmodell für das Engineering eingebetteter software-intensiver Systeme. Technische Universität München (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gorschek, T., Wohlin, C.: Requirements Abstraction Model. Requir. Eng. 11(1), 79–101 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ramesh, B., Jarke, M.: Toward Reference Models for Requirements Traceability. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 27(1), 58–93 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Braun, C., Wortmann, F., Hafner, M., Winter, R.: Method Construction -a Core Approach to Organizational Engineering. In: SAC, pp. 1295–1299. ACM, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V-Modell XT (2008),
  24. 24.
    Mendez Fernandez, D., Kuhrmann, M.: Artefact-based Requirements Engineering and its Integration into a Process Framework. Technische Universität München (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brinkkemper, S., Joosten, S.: Method Engineering and Meta-Modelling. Special Issue. Information and Software Technology (1996)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Braun, P., Broy, M., Houdek, F., Kirchmayr, M., Müller, M., Penzenstadler, B., Pohl, K., Weyer, T.: Entwicklung eines Leitfadens für das Requirements Engineering software-intensiver Eingebetteter Systeme. Technische Universität München (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gonzalez-Perez, C., Henderson-Sellers, B.: A Powertype-based Metamodelling Framework. Software and Systems Modeling 5, 72–90 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mendez Fernandez, D., Wagner, S., Lochmann, K., Baumann, A.: Field Study on Requirements Engineering Artefacts and Patterns. In: Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, Staffordshire, UK (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Méndez Fernández
    • 1
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
    • 1
  • Marco Kuhrmann
    • 1
  • Manfred Broy
    • 1
  1. 1.Technische Universität MünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations