Requirements Modeling with the Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation (AoURN): A Case Study

  • Gunter Mussbacher
  • Daniel Amyot
  • João Araújo
  • Ana Moreira

Abstract

The User Requirements Notation (URN) is a recent ITU-T standard that supports requirements engineering activities. The Aspect-oriented URN (AoURN) adds aspect-oriented concepts to URN, creating a unified framework that allows for scenario-based, goal-oriented, and aspect-oriented modeling. AoURN is applied to the car crash crisis management system (CCCMS), modeling its functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). AoURN generally models all use cases, NFRs, and stakeholders as individual concerns and provides general guidelines for concern identification. AoURN handles interactions between concerns, capturing their dependencies and conflicts as well as the resolutions. We present a qualitative comparison of aspect-oriented techniques for scenario-based and goal-oriented requirements engineering. An evaluation carried out based on the metrics adapted from literature and a task-based evaluation suggest that AoURN models are more scalable than URN models and exhibit better modularity, reusability, and maintainability.

Keywords

Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering Aspect-oriented User Requirements Notation Scenario-based Modeling Goal-oriented Modeling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    International Telecommunication Union: Recommendation Z.151 (11/08), User Requirements Notation (URN) – Language definition (2008), http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Z.151/en
  2. 2.
    Chitchyan, R., Rashid, A., Sawyer, P., Garcia, A., Pinto Alarcon, M., Bakker, J., Tekinerdogan, B., Clarke, S., Jackson, A.: Survey of Analysis and Design Approaches. AOSD-Europe Report ULANC-9 (2005), http://www.aosd-europe.net/deliverables/d11.pdf
  3. 3.
    Clarke, S., Baniassad, E.: Aspect-Oriented Analysis and Design: The Theme Approach. Professional. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cottenier, T., van den Berg, A., Elrad, T.: Motorola WEAVR: Model Weaving in a Large Industrial Context. In: 6th International Conference on Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD 2007), Vancouver (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    France, R., Ray, I., Georg, G., Ghosh, S.: Aspect-oriented Approach to Early Design Modeling. IEE Proceedings–Software 151(4), 173–186 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kienzle, J., Al Abed, W., Klein, J.: Aspect-Oriented Multi-View Modeling. In: 8th International Conference on Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD 2009), Charlottesville, pp. 87–98. ACM Press, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rashid, A., Moreira, A., Araújo, J.: Modularization and composition of aspectual requirements. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Aspect-Oriented Software Development, Boston, pp. 11–20. ACM, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tarr, P., Ossher, H., Harrison, W., Sutton, S.M.: N degrees of separation: Multidimensional separation of concerns. In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 1999), Los Angeles, pp. 107–119. ACM, New York (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D.: Extending the User Requirements Notation with Aspect-oriented Concepts. In: Reed, R., Bilgic, A., Gotzhein, R. (eds.) SDL 2009: Design for Motes and Mobiles. LNCS, vol. 5719, pp. 115–132. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kienzle, J., Guelfi, N., Mustafiz, S.: Crisis Management Systems: A Case Study for Aspect-Oriented Modeling. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development 7, 1–22 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sant’Anna, C., Garcia, A., Chavez, C., Lucena, C., von Staa, A.: On the Reuse and Maintenance of Aspect-Oriented Software: An Assessment Framework. In: Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering (SBES 2003), Manaus, pp. 19–34 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Araújo, J., Moreira, A., Weiss, M.: Visualizing Aspect-Oriented Goal Models with AoGRL. In: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Requirements Engineering Visualization (REV 2007), New Delhi, IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    jUCMNav, Version 4.2.1, University of Ottawa (2010), http://softwareengineering.ca/jucmnav
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    OpenOME website. University of Toronto, http://www.cs.toronto.edu/km/openome/
  16. 16.
    Sandrila SDL website. SanDriLa Ltd., http://www.sdl.sandrila.co.uk/
  17. 17.
    Amyot, D., Mussbacher, G.: Development of Telecommunications Standards and Services with the User Requirements Notation. In: Workshop on ITU System Design Languages, Geneva (2008), http://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/06/18/T06180000010012PDFE.pdf
  18. 18.
    URN Virtual Library, http://www.usecasemaps.org/pub
  19. 19.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Weiss, M.: Visualizing Early Aspects with Use Case Maps. In: Rashid, A., Aksit, M. (eds.) Transactions on AOSD III. LNCS, vol. 4620, pp. 105–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mussbacher, G.: Aspect-Oriented User Requirements Notation: Aspects in Goal and Scenario Models. In: Giese, H. (ed.) MODELS 2007. LNCS, vol. 5002, pp. 305–316. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pourshahid, A., Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Weiss, M.: Toward an Aspect-Oriented Framework for Business Process Improvement. To appear in: International Journal of Electronic Business (IJEB) 8(3) (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sampaio, A., Chitchyan, R., Rashid, A., Rayson, P.: EAMiner: a Tool for Automating Aspect-Oriented Requirements Identification. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE), Long Beach, pp. 352–355. ACM, New York (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    CCCMS: Complete URN Model and AoURN Model Files (2009), http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~damyot/pub/CCCMS-TAOSD
  24. 24.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D.: On Modeling Interactions of Early Aspects with Goals. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE Workshop on Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering and Architecture Design, Vancouver, pp. 14–19. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Weigert, T., Cottenier, T.: Feature Interactions in Aspect-Oriented Scenario Models. In: Nakamura, M., Reiff-Marganiec, S. (eds.) Feature Interactions in Software and Communication Systems X, pp. 75–90. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Basili, V., Caldiera, G., Rombach, H.: The Goal Question Metric Approach. Encyclopedia of Software Engineering 2, 528–532 (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Whittle, J., Weiss, M.: Flexible and Expressive Composition Rules with Aspect-oriented Use Case Maps (AoUCM). In: Moreira, A., Grundy, J. (eds.) Early Aspects Workshop 2007 and EACSL 2007. LNCS, vol. 4765, pp. 19–38. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacobson, I., Ng, P.-W.: Aspect-Oriented Software Development with Use Cases. Addison-Wesley Professional, Reading (2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Whittle, J., Araújo, J.: Scenario Modelling with Aspects. IEE Proceedings – Software 151(4), 157–172 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Araújo, J., Whittle, J., Kim, D.: Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects. In: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2004), Kyoto, pp. 58–67. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Araújo, J., Moreira, A.: An Aspectual Use Case Driven Approach. In: Pimentel, E., Brisaboa, N.R., Gómez, J. (eds.) VIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2003), Alicante, pp. 463–468 (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moreira, A., Araújo, J., Brito, I.: Crosscutting Quality Attributes for Requirements Engineering. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE), Ischia, pp. 167–174. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moreira, A., Araújo, J.: Handling Unanticipated Requirements Change with Aspects. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE), Banff, pp. 411–415 (2004)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barros, J.-P., Gomes, L.: Toward the Support for Crosscutting Concerns in Activity Diagrams: a Graphical Approach. In: Fourth Workshop on Aspect-Oriented Modelling (held with UML 2003), San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Whittle, J., Jayaraman, P.: MATA: A Tool for Aspect-Oriented Modeling Based on Graph Transformation. In: Giese, H. (ed.) MODELS 2007. LNCS, vol. 5002, pp. 16–27. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morin, B., Klein, J., Barais, O., Jézéquel, J.-M.: A Generic Weaver for Supporting Product Lines. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Early Aspects, Leipzig, pp. 11–18. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    France, R., Fleurey, F., Reddy, R., Baudry, B., Ghosh, S.: Providing Support for Model Composition in Metamodels. In: 11th IEEE International Enterprise Computing Conference (EDOC 2007), Annapolis, pp. 253–266. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2007)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    de Bruin, H., van Vliet, H.: Quality-Driven Software Architecture Composition. J. Syst. Softw. 66(3), 269–284 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mussbacher, G., Amyot, D., Whittle, J.: Refactoring-Safe Modeling of Aspect-Oriented Scenarios. In: Schürr, A., Selic, B. (eds.) MODELS 2009. LNCS, vol. 5795, pp. 286–300. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yu, Y., Leite, J.C.S.d.P., Mylopoulos, J.: From Goals to Aspects: Discovering Aspects from Requirements Goal Models. In: Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 2004), Kyoto, pp. 38–47. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alencar, F., Castro, J., Moreira, A., Araújo, J., Silva, C., Monteiro, C., Ramos, R., Mylopoulos, J.: Simplifying i* Models. In: 17th International Workshop on Agent-Oriented Information Systems (AOIS 2007), Trondheim, pp. 635–649. Tapir Academic Press, London (2007)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kaiya, H., Saeki, M.: Weaving Multiple Viewpoint Specifications in Goal-Oriented Requirements Analysis. In: 11th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC 2004), Busan, pp. 418–427. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunter Mussbacher
    • 1
  • Daniel Amyot
    • 1
  • João Araújo
    • 2
  • Ana Moreira
    • 2
  1. 1.SITE, University of OttawaOttawaCanada
  2. 2.CITI/FCT, Universidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal

Personalised recommendations