Predicting Facial Beauty without Landmarks
A fundamental task in artificial intelligence and computer vision is to build machines that can behave like a human in recognizing a broad range of visual concepts. This paper aims to investigate and develop intelligent systems for learning the concept of female facial beauty and producing human-like predictors. Artists and social scientists have long been fascinated by the notion of facial beauty, but study by computer scientists has only begun in the last few years. Our work is notably different from and goes beyond previous works in several aspects: 1) we focus on fully-automatic learning approaches that do not require costly manual annotation of landmark facial features but simply take the raw pixels as inputs; 2) our study is based on a collection of data that is an order of magnitude larger than that of any previous study; 3) we imposed no restrictions in terms of pose, lighting, background, expression, age, and ethnicity on the face images used for training and testing. These factors significantly increased the difficulty of the learning task. We show that a biologically-inspired model with multiple layers of trainable feature extractors can produce results that are much more human-like than the previously used eigenface approach. Finally, we develop a novel visualization method to interpret the learned model and revealed the existence of several beautiful features that go beyond the current averageness and symmetry hypotheses.
KeywordsFace Image Multiscale Model Facial Attractiveness Absolute Score Luminance Channel
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