Advertisement

Bee-Sensor: A Step Towards Meta-Routing Strategies in Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks

  • Israr Ullah
  • Muhammad Saleem
  • Muddassar Farooq
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6234)

Abstract

In next generation ad hoc networks, MANETs and WSNs will cohesively integrate to provide a unified ad hoc framework. Such a hybrid network – due to conflicting operational environments – presents unique challenges for routing protocols. A recently proposed BeeSensor protocol inherits relevant features from BeeAdHoc – a bee-inspired protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we would first do requirements engineering of protocols for hybrid networks and then enhance BeeSensor with relevant features to make it suitable for MANETs and WSNs. Finally, we implement enhanced BeeSensor in famous ns-2 simulator and compare its performance with well known MANET protocols namely DSR, AODV and DSDV. The results of our experiments show that BeeSensor – using our mobility model – delivers similar or better performance compared with its competitors in low mobility scenarios. But its performance relatively degrades in high mobility scenarios. Towards the end of the paper, we propose changes that can overcome these shortcomings.

Keywords

MANETs WSNs meta-routing 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Farooq, M.: Bee-Inspired Protocol Engineering: from Nature to Networks. Natural Computing Series. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M.: Ad hoc on demand Distance Vector routing. In: 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA 1999), pp. 90–100 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, D., Maltz, D.A.: Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks. In: Imielinski, T., Korth, H. (eds.) Mobile Computing. Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Perkins, C.E., Bhagwat, P.: Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. ACM Computer Communication Review 24(4), 234–244 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rajagopalan, S., Shen, C.: ANSI: A swarm intelligence-based unicast routing protocol for hybrid ad hoc networks. J. Syst. Archit. 52(8), 485–504 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Di Caro, G., et al.: AntHocNet: An adaptive nature-inspired algorithm for routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Europ. Trans. on Telecommunications V16, 443–455 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roth, M.H.: Termite: a Swarm Intelligent Routing Algorithm for Mobile Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks. Doctoral Thesis. UMI Order Number: AAI3162791. Cornell University (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saleem, M., Farooq, M.: BeeSensor: A bee-inspired power aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Giacobini, M. (ed.) EvoCOMNET 2007. LNCS, vol. 4448, pp. 81–90. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saleem, M., Farooq, M.: A framework for empirical evaluation of nature inspired routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In: IEEE CEC 2007, pp. 751–758 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wedde, H.F., et al.: Beeadhoc: an energy efficient routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks inspired by bee behavior. In: GECCO 2005, pp. 153–160 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Israr Ullah
    • 1
  • Muhammad Saleem
    • 2
  • Muddassar Farooq
    • 1
  1. 1.Next Generation Intelligent Networks Research Center (nexGIN RC)National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (FAST-NUCES)IslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Studies in Engineering (CASE)IslamabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations