Functional Blueprints: An Approach to Modularity in Grown Systems
The engineering of grown systems poses fundamentally different system integration challenges than ordinary engineering of static designs. On the one hand, a grown system must be capable of surviving not only in its final form, but at every intermediate stage, despite the fact that its subsystems may grow unevenly or be subject to different scaling laws. On the other hand, the ability to grow offers much greater potential for adaptation, either to changes in the environment or to internal stresses developed as the system grows. I observe that the ability of subsystems to tolerate stress can be used to transform incremental adaptation into the dynamic discovery of viable growth trajectories for the system as a whole. Using this observation, I propose an engineering approach based on functional blueprints, under which a system is specified in terms of desired performance and means of incrementally correcting deficiencies. I demonstrate this approach by applying it to integrate simplified models of tissue growth and vascularization, then further demonstrate how the composed system may itself be modulated for use as a component in a more complex design.
KeywordsTissue Growth Blue Solid Line Functional Blueprint Graceful Degradation Equivalent Construction
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.Carroll, S.B.: Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo and the Making of the Animal Kingdom. W. W. Norton & Company (2005)Google Scholar
- 6.Coore, D.: Botanical Computing: A Developmental Approach to Generating Inter connect Topologies on an Amorphous Computer. Ph.D. thesis, MIT (1999)Google Scholar
- 7.Doursat, R.: The growing canvas of biological development: Multiscale pattern generation on an expanding lattice of gene regulatory networks. InterJournal: Complex Systems 1809 (2006)Google Scholar
- 8.Kirschner, M.W., Norton, J.C.: The Plausibility of Life: Resolving Darwin’s Dilemma. Yale University Press, New Haven and London (2005)Google Scholar
- 9.Kondacs, A.: Biologically-inspired self-assembly of 2d shapes, using global-to-local compilation. In: 18th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 633–638 (2003)Google Scholar
- 10.MIT Proto. Software available at http://stpg.csail.mit.edu/proto.html (Retrieved March 14, 2010)
- 11.Nagpal, R.: Programmable Self-Assembly: Constructing Global Shape using Biologically-inspired Local Interactions and Origami Mathematics. Ph.D. thesis, MIT (2001)Google Scholar
- 13.Shetty, R.P., Endy, D., Thomas, F., Knight, J.: Engineering biobrick vectors from biobrick parts. Journal of Biological Engineering 2(5) (2008)Google Scholar
- 15.Werfel, J., Ingber, D.E., Nagpal, R.: Collective construction of environmentally-adaptive structures. In: 2007 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2345–2352 (2007)Google Scholar