Phosphorus in Action pp 371-406

Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 26) | Cite as

Biological Phosphorus Cycling in Dryland Regions



The relatively few studies done on phosphorus (P) cycling in arid and semiarid lands (drylands) show many factors that distinguish P cycling in drylands from that in more mesic regions. In drylands, most biologically relevant P inputs and losses are from the deposition and loss of dust. Horizontal and vertical redistribution of P is an important process. P is concentrated at the soil surface and thus vulnerable to loss via erosion. High pH and CaCO3 limit P bioavailability, and low rainfall limits microbe and plant ability to free abiotically bound P via exudates, thus making it available for uptake. Many invasive plants are able to access recalcitrant P more effectively than are native plants. As P availability depends on soil moisture and temperature, climate change is expected to have large impacts on P cycling.


  1. Aerts R, Bobbink R (1999) The impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on vegetation in terrestrial non-forest ecosystems. In: Langan S (ed) The impacts of nitrogen deposition on natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 85–122Google Scholar
  2. Alkon PU (1999) Microhabitat to landscape impacts: crested porcupine digs in the Negev Desert highlands. J Arid Environ 41:183–202Google Scholar
  3. Allen EB, Allen MF (1988) Facilitation of succession by the nonmycotrophic colonizer Salsola kali (Chenopodiaceae) on a harsh site: effects of mycorrhizal fungi. Am J Bot 75:257–266Google Scholar
  4. Allen MF, Figueroa C, Weinbaum BS, Barlow SB, Allen EB (1996) Differential production of oxalate by mycorrhizal fungi in arid ecosystems. Biol Fertil Soils 22:287–292Google Scholar
  5. Augustine DJ (2003) Long-term, livestock-mediated redistribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in an East African savanna. J Appl Ecol 40:137–149Google Scholar
  6. Bardgett RD (2005) The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Barroso CB, Nahas E (2005) The status of soil phosphate fractions and the ability of fungi to dissolve hardly soluble phosphates. Appl Soil Ecol 29:73–83Google Scholar
  8. Barrow JR, Osuna P (2002) Phosphorus solubilization and uptake by dark septate fungi in fourwing saltbush, Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. J Arid Environ 51:449–459Google Scholar
  9. Bashkin M, Stohlgren TJ, Otsuki Y, Lee M, Evangelista P, Belnap J (2003) Soil characteristics and plant exotic species invasions in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, USA. Appl Soil Ecol 22:67–77Google Scholar
  10. Baturin GN (2003) Phosphorus cycle in the ocean. Lithol Miner Resour 38:101–119Google Scholar
  11. Belnap J (2003a) Comparative structure of physical and biological soil crusts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 177–191Google Scholar
  12. Belnap J (2003b) Microbes and microfauna associated with biological soil crusts. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 167–174Google Scholar
  13. Belnap J, Phillips SL (2001) Soil biota in an ungrazed grassland: response to annual grass (Bromus tectorum) invasion. Ecol Appl 11:1261–1275Google Scholar
  14. Belnap J, Sherrod SK (2009) Soil amendment effects on the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum L. and facilitation of its growth by the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. Plant Ecol 201(2):709–721Google Scholar
  15. Belnap J, Prasse R, Harper KT (2003a) Influence of biological soil crusts on soil environments and vascular plants. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 281–300Google Scholar
  16. Belnap J, Sherrod SK, Miller ME (2003b) Effects of soil amendments on germination and emergence of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) and Hilaria jamesii. Weed Sci 51:371–378Google Scholar
  17. Belnap J, Büdel B, Lange OL (2003c) Biological soil crusts: characteristics and distribution. In: Belnap J, Lange OL (eds) Biological soil crusts: structure, function, and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–30Google Scholar
  18. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Miller ME (2004) Response of desert biological soil crusts to alterations in precipitation frequency. Oecologia 141:306–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Sherrod S, Moldenke A (2005) Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: does this affect ecosystem processes? Ecology 86:3007–3017Google Scholar
  20. Belnap J, Phillips SL, Troxler T (2006) Soil lichen and moss cover and species richness can be highly dynamic: the effects of invasion by the annual exotic grass Bromus tectorum and the effects of climate on biological soil crusts. Appl Soil Ecol 32:63–76Google Scholar
  21. Bestlemeyer BT, Brown JR, Havstad KM, Fredrickson EL (2006) A holistic view of an arid ecosystem: a synthesis of research an dits applications. In: Havstad KM, Huenneke LF, Schlesinger WH (eds) Structure and function of a Chihuahuan desert ecosystem: the Jornada Basin long-term ecological research site. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 354–368Google Scholar
  22. Billings WD (1950) Vegetation and plant growth as affected by chemically altered rocks in the western Great Basin. Ecology 31:62–74Google Scholar
  23. Blackwell MSA, Brookes PC, de la Fuente-Martinez N, Murray PJ, Snars KE, Williams JK, Haygarth PM (2009) Effects of soil drying and rate of re-wetting on concentrations and forms of phosphorus in leachate. Biol Fertil Soils 45:635–643Google Scholar
  24. Blank R, Sforza R (2007) Plant-soil relationships of the invasive annual grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae: a reciprocal transplant experiment. Plant Soil 298:7–19Google Scholar
  25. Blank R, Young JA (2002) Influence of the exotic invasive crucifer, Lepidium latifolium, on soil properties and elemental cycling. Soil Sci 167:821–829Google Scholar
  26. Bolton H Jr, Smith JL, Link SO (1993) Soil microbial biomass and activity of a disturbed and undisturbed shrub-steppe ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 25:545–552Google Scholar
  27. Bornyasz MA, Graham RC, Allen MF (2005) Ectomycorrhizae in a soil-weathered granitic bedrock regolith: linking matrix resources to plants. Geoderma 126:141–160Google Scholar
  28. Boulton AM, Jaffee BA, Scow KM (2003) Effects of a common harvester ant (Messor andrei) on richness and abundance of soil biota. Appl Soil Ecol 23:257–265Google Scholar
  29. Bowker MA, Belnap J, Davidson DW, Goldstein H (2006) Correlates of biological soil crust abundance across a continuum of spatial scales: support for a hierarchical conceptual model. J Appl Ecol 43:152–163Google Scholar
  30. Bradford KJ, Hsiao TC (1982) Physiological responses to moderate water stress. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Physiological plant ecology II. Springer, Berlin, pp 263–324Google Scholar
  31. Breecker DO, Sharp ZD, McFadden LD (2009) Seasonal bias in the formation and stable isotopic composition of pedogenic carbonate in modern soils from central New Mexico, USA. Geol Soc Am Bull 121:630–640Google Scholar
  32. Büdel B (2000) Symbioses (living one inside the other). In: Seckbach J (ed) Journey to diverse microbial worlds: adaptation to exotic environments. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 257–266Google Scholar
  33. Butterly CR, Bünemann EK, McNeill AM, Baldock JA, Marschner P (2009) Carbon pulses but not phosphorus pulses are related to decreases in microbial biomass during repeated drying and rewetting of soils. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1406–1416Google Scholar
  34. Caldwell MM, Richards JH (1986) Competing root systems: morphology and models of absorption. In: Givnish TJ (ed) On the economy of plant form and function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 251–273Google Scholar
  35. Callaway RM (2007) Positive interactions and interdependence in plant communities. Springer, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  36. Callaway RM, Aschehoug ET (2000) Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: a mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290:521–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cannon JP, Allen EB, Allen MF, Dudley LM, Jurinak JJ (1995) The effects of oxalates produced by Salsola tragus on the phosphorus nutrition of Stipa pulchra. Oecologia 102:265–272Google Scholar
  38. Casper BB, Jackson RB (1997) Plant competition underground. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:545–570Google Scholar
  39. Castenholz RW, Garcia-Pichel F (2000) Cyanobacterial responses to UV-radiation. In: Whitton BA, Potts M (eds) The ecology of cyanobacteria. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 591–611Google Scholar
  40. Chapuis-Lardy L, Le Bayon R-C, Brossard M, López-Hernández D, Blanchart E (2011) Role of soil macrofauna in phosphorus cycling. In: Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action: biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Soil biology, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_8
  41. Charley JL (1977) Mineral cycling in rangeland ecosystems. In: Sosebee RE (ed) Rangeland plant physiology. Society of Range Management, Denver, CO, pp 215–256Google Scholar
  42. Charley JL, Cowling SW (1968) Changes in soil nutrient status resulting from overgrazing and their consequences in plant communities of semi-arid areas. Proc Ecol Soc Aust 3:28–38Google Scholar
  43. Clarkson DT (1985) Factors affecting mineral nutrient acquisition by plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 26:77–115Google Scholar
  44. Collins SL, Sinsabaugh RL, Crenshaw C, Green L, Porras-Alfaro A, Stursova M, Zeglin LH (2008) Pulse dynamics and microbial processes in aridland ecosystems. J Ecol 96:413–420Google Scholar
  45. Cook CW, Gates DH (1960) Effects of site and season on oxalate content of halogeton. J Range Manage 13:97–101Google Scholar
  46. Darby BJ, Neher DA, Belnap J (2007) Soil nematode communities are ecologically more mature beneath late- than early-successional stage biological soil crusts. Appl Soil Ecol 35:203–212Google Scholar
  47. de Caire GZ, de Cano MS, Palma RM, de Mulé CZ (2000) Changes in soil enzyme activities following additions of cyanobacterial biomass and exopolysaccharide. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1985–1987Google Scholar
  48. DeLucia EH, Schlesinger WH, Billings WD (1989) Edaphic limitations to growth and photosynthesis in Sierran and Great Basin vegetation. Oecologia 78:184–190Google Scholar
  49. DeLucia EH, Callaway RM, Thomas EM, Schlesinger WH (1997) Mechanisms of phosphorus acquisition for ponderosa pine seedlings under high CO2 and temperature. Ann Bot 79:111–120Google Scholar
  50. Dornbush ME (2007) Grasses, litter, and their interaction affect microbial biomass and soil enzyme activity. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2241–2249Google Scholar
  51. Drake M, Steckel JE (1995) Solubilization of soil and rock phosphate as related to root cation exchange capacity. Proc Soil Sci Soc Am 19:449–450Google Scholar
  52. Duda JJ, Freeman DC, Emlen JM, Belnap J, Kitchen SG, Zak JC, Sobek E, Tracy M, Montante J (2003) Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halogeton glomeratus. Biol Fertil Soils 38:72–77Google Scholar
  53. Eldridge DJ, Rath D (2002) Hip holes: Kangaroo (Macropus spp.) resting sites modify the physical and chemical environment of woodland soils. Aust Ecol 27:527–536Google Scholar
  54. Epstein E (1961) The essential role of calcium in selective cation transport by plant cells. Plant Physiol 36:437–444PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Estiarte M, Penuelas J, Sardans J, Emmett BA, Sowerby A, Beier C, Schmidt IK, Tietema A, Van Meeteren MJM, Kovacs Lang E, Mathe P, De Angelis P, De Dato G (2008) Root-surface phosphatase activity in shrublands across a European gradient: effects of warming. J Environ Biol 29:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Facelli JM, Brock DJ (2000) Patch dynamics in arid lands: localized effects of Acacia papyrocarpa on soils and vegetation of open woodlands of south Australia. Ecography 23:479–491Google Scholar
  57. Fenn ME, Baron JS, Allen EB, Rueth HM, Nydick KR, Geiser L, Bowman WD, Sickman JO, Meixner T, Johnson DW, Neitlich P (2003) Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the Western United States. Bioscience 53:404–420Google Scholar
  58. Field JP, Belnap J, Breshears DD, Neff JC, Okin GS, Whicker JJ, Painter TH, Ravi S, Reheis MC, Reynolds RL (2009) The ecology of dust. Front Ecol Environ. doi:10.1890/090050
  59. Fogg GE (1966) The extracellular products of algae. Oceanogr Mar Biol 4:195–212Google Scholar
  60. Fox TR, Comerford NB (1990) Low-molecular-weight organic acids in selected forest soils of the southeastern USA. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1139–1144Google Scholar
  61. Gadd GM, Watkinson SC, Dyer PS (2007) Fungi in the environment. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Garcia-Pichel F, Belnap J (1996) Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts. J Phycol 32:774–782Google Scholar
  63. Garkaklis MJ, Bradley JS, Wooller RD (2004) Digging and soil turnover by a mycophagous marsupial. J Arid Environ 56:569–578Google Scholar
  64. Geesey G, Jang L (1990) Extracellular polymers for metal binding. In: Ehrlich HL, Brierley CL (eds) Microbial mineral recovery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 223–247Google Scholar
  65. George TS, Fransson A-M, Hammond JP, White PJ (2011) Phosphorus nutrition: rhizosphere processes, plant response and adaptations. In: Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action: biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Soil biology, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_10
  66. Green LE, Porras-Alfaro A, Sinsabaugh RL (2008) Translocation of nitrogen and carbon integrates biotic crust and grass production in desert grassland. J Ecol 96:1076–1085Google Scholar
  67. Greene B, Darnall DW (1990) Microbial oxygenic photoautotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae) for metal-ion binding. In: Ehrlich HL, Brierley CL (eds) Microbial mineral recovery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 277–302Google Scholar
  68. Gundale MJ, Sutherland S, DeLuca TH (2008) Fire, native species, and soil resource interactions influence the spatio-temporal invasion pattern of Bromus tectorum. Ecography 31:201–210Google Scholar
  69. Hansen ES (1999) Epilithic lichens on iron- and copper-containing crusts at Qeqertarsuaq, Central West Greenland. Graphis Scripta 10:7–12Google Scholar
  70. Harner RF, Harper KT (1973) Mineral composition of grassland species of the eastern great basin in relation to stand productivity. Can J Bot 51:2037–2046Google Scholar
  71. Harris GA (1967) Some competitive relationships between Agropyron spicatum and Bromus tectorum. Ecol Monogr 37:89–111Google Scholar
  72. Harvey SJ, Nowierski RM (1989) Spotted knapweed: allelopathy or nutrient depletion. In: Fay PK, Lacey JR (eds) Knapweed symposium. Plant and Soil Science Department and Extension Service, Montana State University, Bozeman, p 118Google Scholar
  73. Herron GJ, Sheley RL, Maxwell BD, Jacobsen JS (2001) Influence of nutrient availability on the interaction between spotted knapweed and bluebunch wheatgrass. Restor Ecol 9:326–331Google Scholar
  74. Hiernaux P, Bielders CL, Valentin C, Bationo A, Fernandez-Rivera S (1999) Effects of livestock grazing on physical and chemical properties of sandy soils in Sahelian rangelands. J Arid Environ 41:231–245Google Scholar
  75. Hilder EJ, Mottershead BE (1963) The redistribution of plant nutrients through free-grazing sheep. Aust J Sci 26:88–89Google Scholar
  76. Holford ICR, Chater M, Mattingly GEG (1990) Effects of decalcification on the phosphate sorption characteristics of eight calcareous soils. Aust J Soil Res 28:919–928Google Scholar
  77. Hooper DU, Johnson LC (1999) Nitrogen limitation in dryland ecosystems: responses to geographical and temporal variation in precipitation. Biogeochemistry 46:247–293Google Scholar
  78. Horner HT, Wagner BL (1995) Calcium oxalate formation in higher plants. In: Khan SR (ed) Calcium oxalate in biological systems. CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp 53–72Google Scholar
  79. James JJ, Tiller RL, Richards JH (2005) Multiple resources limit plant growth and function in a saline-alkaline desert community. J Ecol 93:113–126Google Scholar
  80. Jansa J, Finlay R, Wallander H, Smith FA, Smith SE (2011) Role of mycorrhizal symbioses in phosphorus cycling. In: Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action: biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Soil biology, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_6
  81. Jobbágy EG, Jackson RB (2001) The distribution of soil nutrients with depth: global patterns and the imprint of plants. Biogeochemistry 53:51–77Google Scholar
  82. Jobbágy EG, Jackson RB (2004) The uplift of soil nutrients by plants: biogeochemical consequences across scales. Ecology 85:2369–2379Google Scholar
  83. Jonasson S, Chapin FS III (1991) Seasonal uptake and allocation of phosphorus in Eriophorum vaginatum L. measured by labelling with 32P. New Phytol 118:349–357Google Scholar
  84. Jones DL, Oburger E (2011) Solubilization of phosphorus by soil microorganisms. In: Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action: biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Soil biology, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_7
  85. Jones D, Wilson MJ (1985) Chemical activity of lichens on mineral surfaces – a review. Int Biodeter 21:99–104Google Scholar
  86. Jungk A, Claassen N (1997) Ion diffusion in the soil-root system. Adv Agron 61:53–110Google Scholar
  87. Jurinak JJ, Griffin RA (1972) Factors affecting the movement and distribution of anions in desert soils. US/IBP desert biome research memorandum 72-38. Utah State University, Logan, UTGoogle Scholar
  88. Jurinak JJ, Dudley LM, Allen MF, Knight WG (1986) The role of calcium oxalate in the availability of phosphorus in soils of semiarid regions: a thermodynamic study. Soil Sci 142:255–261Google Scholar
  89. Kieft TL, Soroker E, Firestone MK (1987) Microbial biomass response to a rapid increase in water potential when dry soil is wetted. Soil Biol Biochem 19:119–126Google Scholar
  90. Killingbeck KT, Whitford WG (1996) High foliar nitrogen in desert shrubs: an important ecosystem trait or defective desert doctrine? Ecology 77:1728–1737Google Scholar
  91. Killingbeck K, Whitford W (2001) Nutrient resorption in shrubs growing by design, and by default in Chihuahuan Desert arroyos. Oecologia 128:351–359Google Scholar
  92. Kleiner EF, Harper KT (1977) Occurrence of four major perennial grasses in relation to edaphic factors in a pristine community. J Range Manage 30:286–289Google Scholar
  93. Klemmedson JO, Tiedemann AR (1986) Long-term effects of mesquite removal on soil characteristics: II. Nutrient availability. Soil Sci Soc Am J 50:476–480Google Scholar
  94. Klemmedson JO, Tiedemann AR (1998). Lithosequence of soils and associated vegetation on subalpine range of the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  95. Krauskopf KB, Bird DK (1995) Introduction to geochemistry. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  96. Lajtha K (1987) Nutrient reabsorption efficiency and the response to phosphorus fertilization in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata (DC.) Cov. Biogeochemistry 4:265–276Google Scholar
  97. Lajtha K, Harrison AF (1995) Strategies of phosphorus acquisition and conservation by plant species and communities. In: Tiessen H (ed) Phosphorus in the global environment. Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp 140–147Google Scholar
  98. Lajtha K, Schlesinger WH (1986) Plant response to variations in nitrogen availability in a desert shrubland community. Biogeochemistry 2:29–37Google Scholar
  99. Lajtha K, Schlesinger WH (1988) The biogeochemistry of phosphorus cycling and phosphorus availability along a desert soil chronosequence. Ecology 69:24–39Google Scholar
  100. Lange W (1974) Chelating agents and blue-green algae. Can J Microbiol 20:1311–1321Google Scholar
  101. Lee KE (1977) Physical effects of herbivores on arid and semi-arid rangeland ecosystems. The impact of herbivores on arid and semi-arid rangelands. In: Proceedings 2nd US/Aus Rangeland Panel, Adelaide, 1972. Australian Rangeland Society, Perth, West AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  102. Lei SA, Walker LR (1997) Biotic and abiotic factors influencing the distribution of Coleogyne communities in southern Nevada. Great Basin Nat 57:163–171Google Scholar
  103. LeJeune KD, Seastedt TR (2001) Centaurea species: the forb that won the West. Conserv Biol 15:1568–1574Google Scholar
  104. LeJeune KD, Suding KN, Seastedt TR (2006) Nutrient availability does not explain invasion and dominance of a mixed grass prairie by the exotic forb Centaurea diffusa Lam. Appl Soil Ecol 32:98–110Google Scholar
  105. Lewin RA (1956) Extracellular polysaccharides of green algae. Can J Microbiol 2:665–672Google Scholar
  106. Li XY, Liu LY (2003) Effect of gravel mulch on aeolian dust accumulation in the semiarid region of northwest China. Soil Tillage Res 70:73–81Google Scholar
  107. Li X, Sarah P (2003) Enzyme activities along a climatic transect in the Judean Desert. CATENA 53:349–363Google Scholar
  108. Lindahl BD, Finlay RD, Cairney JWG (2005) Enzymatic activities of mycelia in mycorrhizal fungal communities. In: Dighton J, White JF, Oudemans P (eds) The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem, vol 23. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, pp 331–348Google Scholar
  109. Lobry de Bruyn LA, Conacher AJ (1990) The role of termites and ants in soil modification: a review. Aust J Soil Res 28:55–93Google Scholar
  110. Lonsdale WM (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536Google Scholar
  111. Lynch JP, Deikman J (1998) Phosphorus in plant biology: regulatory roles in molecular, cellular, organismic and ecosystem processes. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  112. Lynch JP, Ho MD (2005) Rhizoeconomics: carbon costs of phosphorus acquisition. Plant Soil 269:45–56Google Scholar
  113. Ma B, Zhou ZY, Zhang LL, Gao WX (2007) The principal component analysis of soil and population growth status of Artemisia sphaerocephala in arid region of Alex Desert. Xibei Zhiwu Xuebao 27:995–999Google Scholar
  114. Ma B, Zhou ZY, Zhang CP, Zhang G, Hu YJ (2009) Inorganic phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of xerophytic shrubs in the Alxa Desert. J Arid Environ 73:55–61Google Scholar
  115. MacKay WP (1991) The role of ants and termites in desert communities. In: Polis G (ed) The ecology of desert communities. University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, pp 113–150Google Scholar
  116. MacMahon JA, Mull JF, Crist TO (2000) Harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex SPP.): their community and ecosystem influences. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31:265–291Google Scholar
  117. Magid J, Nielsen NE (1992) Seasonal variation in organic and inorganic phosphorus fractions of temperate-climate sandy soils. Plant Soil 144:155–165Google Scholar
  118. Mandyam K, Jumpponen A (2005) Seeking the elusive function of the root-colonising dark septate endophytic fungi. Stud Mycol 53:173–189Google Scholar
  119. Marschner H (1995) Ion uptake mechanisms of individual cells and roots: short-distance transport. In: Marschner H (ed) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic, San Diego, pp 6–78Google Scholar
  120. McClaran MP, Van Devender TR (1995) The desert grassland. University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  121. McCulley RL, Jobbagy EG, Pockman WT, Jackson RB (2004) Nutrient uptake as a contributing explanation for deep rooting in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Oecologia 141:620–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. McLean RJC, Beveridge TJ (1990) Metal-binding capacity of bacterial surfaces and their ability to form mineralized aggregates. In: Ehrlich HL, Brierley CL (eds) Microbial mineral recovery. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 185–222Google Scholar
  123. Midgley GF, van der Heyden F (1999) Form and function in perennial plants. In: Dean WRJ, Milton SJ (eds) The Karoo: ecological patterns and processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 91–106Google Scholar
  124. Miller ME, Belnap J, Beatty SW, Webb BL (2006a) Effects of water additions, chemical amendments, and plants on in situ measures of nutrient bioavailability in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA. Plant Soil 288:19–29Google Scholar
  125. Miller ME, Belnap J, Beatty S, Reynolds RL (2006b) Performance of Bromus tectorum L. in relation to soil properties, water additions, and chemical amendments in calcareous soils of southeastern Utah, USA. Plant Soil 288:1–18Google Scholar
  126. Monger HC (2006) Soil development in the Jornada Basin. In: Havstad KM, Huenneke LF, Schlesinger WH (eds) Structure and function of a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem: the Jornada Basin long-term ecological research site. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 81–106Google Scholar
  127. Nadeau J, Qualls R, Nowak R, Blank R (2007) The potential bioavailability of organic C, N, and P through enzyme hydrolysis in soils of the Mojave Desert. Biogeochemistry 82:305–320Google Scholar
  128. Naiman RJ, Braack L, Grant R, Kemp AC, Du Toit JT, Venter FJ (2003) Interactions between species and ecosystem characteristics. In: Du Toit JT, Rogers KH, Biggs HC (eds) The Kruger experience: ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity. Island, Washington, pp 221–241Google Scholar
  129. Nannipieri P, Giagnoni L, Landi L, Renella G (2011) Role of phosphatase enzymes in soil. In: Bünemann E, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action: biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Soil biology, vol 26. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-15271-9_9
  130. Nash TH III (1996) Lichen biology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  131. Neff JC, Reynolds R, Belnap J, Lamothe P (2005) Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah. Ecol Appl 15:87–95Google Scholar
  132. Neff JC, Ballantyne AP, Farmer GL, Mahowald NM, Conroy JL, Landry CC, Overpeck JT, Painter TH, Lawrence CR, Reynolds RL (2008) Increasing eolian dust deposition in the western United States linked to human activity. Nat Geosci 1:189–195Google Scholar
  133. Okin GS, Mahowald N, Chadwick OA, Artaxo P (2004) Impact of desert dust on the biogeochemistry of phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 18:GB2005Google Scholar
  134. Palmer AR, Novellie PA, Lloyd JW (1999) Community patterns and dynamics. In: Dean WRJ, Milton SJ (eds) The Karoo: ecological patterns and processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 208–222Google Scholar
  135. Parker KC (1995) Effects of complex geomorphic history on soil and vegetation patterns on arid alluvial fans. J Arid Environ 30:19–39Google Scholar
  136. Phuyal M, Artz R, Sheppard L, Leith I, Johnson D (2008) Long-term nitrogen deposition increases phosphorus limitation of bryophytes in an ombrotrophic bog. Plant Ecol 196:111–121Google Scholar
  137. Quiquampoix H, Mousain D (2005) Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus. In: Turner BL, Frossard E, Baldwin DS (eds) Organic phosphorus in the environment. CABI, Cambridge, MA, pp 89–112Google Scholar
  138. Radin JW, Eidenbock MP (1984) Hydraulic conductance as a factor limiting leaf expansion of phosphorus-deficient cotton plants. Plant Physiol 75:372–377PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Reed SC, Seastedt TR, Mann CM, Suding KN, Townsend AR, Cherwin KL (2007) Phosphorus fertilization stimulates nitrogen fixation and increases inorganic nitrogen concentrations in a restored prairie. Appl Soil Ecol 36:238–242Google Scholar
  140. Reheis MC, Kihl R (1995) Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989 – Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology. J Geophys Res 100:8893–8918Google Scholar
  141. Reheis MC, Budahn JR, Lamothe PJ (1999) Elemental analyses of modern dust in southern Nevada and California. USGS OFR 99-0531Google Scholar
  142. Reynolds R, Belnap J, Reheis M, Lamothe P, Luiszer F (2001) Aeolian dust in Colorado Plateau soils: nutrient inputs and recent change in source. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:7123–7127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Reynolds R, Neff JC, Reheis M, Lamothe P (2006a) Atmospheric dust in modern soil on aeolian sandstone, Colorado Plateau (USA): Variation with landscape position and contribution to potential plant nutrients. Geoderma 130:108–123Google Scholar
  144. Reynolds RL, Reheis M, Yount J, Lamothe P (2006b) Composition of aeolian dust in natural traps on isolated surfaces of the central Mojave Desert – insights to mixing, sources, and nutrient inputs. J Arid Environ 66:42–61Google Scholar
  145. Reynolds RL, Reheis MC, Neff JC, Goldstein H, Yount J (2006c) Late Quaternary eolian dust in surficial deposits of a Colorado Plateau grassland: controls on distribution and ecologic effects. CATENA 66:251–266Google Scholar
  146. Rogers SL, Burns RG (1994) Changes in aggregate stability, nutrient status, indigenous microbial populations, and seedling emergence, following inoculation of soil with Nostoc muscorum. Biol Fertil Soils 18:209–215Google Scholar
  147. Santos PF, DePree E, Whitford WG (1978) Spatial distribution of litter and microarthropods in a Chihuahuan desert ecosystem. J Arid Environ 1:41–48Google Scholar
  148. Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M (2006) Warming and drought alter soil phosphatase activity and soil P availability in a Mediterranean shrubland. Plant Soil 289:227–238Google Scholar
  149. Sardans J, Peñuelas J, Ogaya R (2008) Experimental drought reduced acid and alkaline phosphatase activity and increased organic extractable P in soil in a Quercus ilex Mediterranean forest. Eur J Soil Biol 44:509–520Google Scholar
  150. Schelske CL, Hooper FF, Haertl EJ (1962) Responses of a marl lake to chelated iron and fertilizer. Ecology 43:646–653Google Scholar
  151. Schenk HJ, Callaway RM, Mahall BE (1999) Spatial root segregation: are roots territorial? Adv Ecol Res 28:145–180Google Scholar
  152. Schlesinger WH, DeLucia EH, Billings WD (1989) Nutrient-use efficiency of woody plants on contrasting soils in the western Great Basin, Nevada. Ecology 70:105–113Google Scholar
  153. Schlesinger WH, Reynolds JF, Cunningham GL, Huenneke LF, Jarrell WM, Virginia RA, Whitford WG (1990) Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science 247:1043–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Scholes RJ (1990) The influence of soil fertility on the ecology of Southern African dry savannas. J Biogeogr 17:415–419Google Scholar
  155. Scholes RJ, Bond WJ, Eckhardt HC (2003) Vegetation dynamics in the Kruger ecosystem. In: Du Toit JT, Rogers KH, Biggs HC (eds) The Kruger experience: ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity. Island, Washington, pp 242–262Google Scholar
  156. Schwinning S, Sala OE (2004) Hierarchy of responses to resource pulses in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Oecologia 141:211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sinsabaugh RS (1994) Enzymic analysis of microbial pattern and process. Biol Fertil Soils 17:69–74Google Scholar
  158. Sinsabaugh RL, Lauber CL, Weintraub MN, Ahmed B, Allison SD, Crenshaw C, Contosta AR, Cusack D, Frey S, Gallo ME, Gartner TB, Hobbie SE, Holland K, Keeler BL, Powers JS, Stursova M, Takacs-Vesbach C, Waldrop MP, Wallenstein MD, Zak DR, Zeglin LH (2008) Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale. Ecol Lett 11:1252–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith SD, Nowak RS (1990) Ecophysiology of plants in the intermountain lowlands. In: Osmond CB, Pitelka LF, Hidy GM (eds) Plant biology of the basin and range. Springer, New York, pp 179–241Google Scholar
  160. Stursova M, Crenshaw CL, Sinsabaugh RL (2006) Microbial responses to long-term N deposition in a semiarid grassland. Microb Ecol 51:90–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Suding KN, LeJeune KD, Seastedt TR (2004) Competitive impacts and responses of an invasive weed: dependencies on nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Oecologia 141:526–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Thorpe AS, Archer V, DeLuca TH (2006) The invasive forb, Centaurea maculosa, increases phosphorus availability in Montana grasslands. Appl Soil Ecol 32:118–122Google Scholar
  163. Tiessen H, Stewart JWB, Cole CV (1984) Pathways of phosphorus transformations in soils of differing pedogenesis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48:853–858Google Scholar
  164. Turner BL, Haygarth PM (2001) Biogeochemistry: phosphorus solubilization in rewetted soils. Nature 411:258–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Turner BL, Cade-Menun BJ, Westermann DT (2003a) Organic phosphorus composition and potential bioavailability in semi-arid arable soils of the western United States. Soil Sci Soc Am J 67:1168–1179Google Scholar
  166. Turner BL, Baxter R, Ellwood NTW, Whitton BA (2003b) Seasonal phosphatase activities of mosses from Upper Teesdale northern England. J Bryol 25:189–200Google Scholar
  167. Turner BL, Driessen JP, Haygarth PM, McKelvie ID (2003c) Potential contribution of lysed bacterial cells to phosphorus solubilisation in two rewetted Australian pasture soils. Soil Biol Biochem 35:187–189Google Scholar
  168. Van Breemen N, Finlay RD, Lundström US, Jongmans AG, Giesler R, Melderud P-A (2000) Mycorrhizal weathering: a true case of mineral plant nutrition? Biogeochemistry 49:53–67Google Scholar
  169. Venter FJ, Scholes RJ, Eckhardt HC (2003) The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern. In: Du Toit JT, Rogers KH, Biggs HC (eds) The Kruger experience: ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity. Island, Washington, pp 83–129Google Scholar
  170. Verboom WH, Pate JS (2006) Bioengineering of soil profiles in semiarid ecosystems: the ‘phytotarium’ concept. Plant Soil 289:71–102Google Scholar
  171. Verrecchia E, Yair A, Kidron GJ, Verrecchia K (1995) Physical properties of the psammophile cryptogamic crust and their consequences to the water regime of sandy soils, north-western Negev Desert, Israel. J Arid Environ 29:427–437Google Scholar
  172. von Wandruszka R (2006) Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility. Geochem Trans 7:6Google Scholar
  173. Wagner D (1997) Harvester ant nests, soil biota and soil chemistry. Oecologia 112:232–236Google Scholar
  174. Walbridge MR (1991) Phosphorus availability in acid organic soils of the lower North Carolina coastal plain. Ecology 72:2083–2100Google Scholar
  175. West N, Griffin R, Jurinak J (1984) Comparison of phosphorus distribution and cycling between adjacent native semidesert shrub and cultivated grass-dominated ecosystems. Plant Soil 81:151–164Google Scholar
  176. White CS, Moore DI, Craig JA (2004) Regional-scale drought increases potential soil fertility in semiarid grasslands. Biol Fertil Soils 40:73–78Google Scholar
  177. Whitford WG (1999) Comparison of ecosystem processes in the Nama-karoo and other deserts. In: Deand WRJ, Milton SJ (eds) The Karoo: ecological patterns and processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 291–313Google Scholar
  178. Whitford WG (2002) Ecology of desert systems. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  179. Whitford WG, Bestlemeyer BT (2006) Chihuahuan desert fauna: effects on ecosystem properties and processes. In: Havstad KM, Huenneke LF, Schlesinger WH (eds) Structure and function of a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem: the Jornada Basin long-term ecological research site. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 247–265Google Scholar
  180. Whitton BA, Al-Shehri AM, Ellwood NTW, Turner BL (2005) Ecological aspects of phosphatase activity in cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and bryophytes. In: Turner BL, Frossard E, Baldwin DS (eds) Organic phosphorus in the environment. CABI, Cambridge, MA, pp 205–241Google Scholar
  181. Wood TG, Sands WA (1978) The role of termites in ecosystems. In: Brian MV (ed) Production ecology of ants and termites. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 245–292Google Scholar
  182. Woodmansee RG (1978) Additions and losses of nitrogen in grassland ecosystems. Bioscience 28:448–453Google Scholar
  183. Wright RD, Mooney HA (1965) Substrate-oriented distribution of bristlecone pine in the White Mountains of California. Am Midl Nat 73:257–284Google Scholar
  184. Yoder CK, Nowak RS (2000) Phosphorus acquisition by Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens from soil interspaces shared with Mojave Desert shrubs. Funct Ecol 14:685–692Google Scholar
  185. Zhang F, Li L (2003) Using competitive and facilitative interactions in intercropping systems enhances crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency. Plant Soil 248:305–312Google Scholar
  186. Zou X, Binkley D, Caldwell BA (1995) Effects of dinitrogen-fixing trees on phosphorus biogeochemical cycling in two experimental forests. Soil Sci Soc Am J 59:1452–1458Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US Geological Survey, Canyonlands Research StationMoabUSA

Personalised recommendations