Formalising Interaction Patterns

  • Paolo Bottoni
  • Esther Guerra
  • Juan de Lara
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 340)


The use of patterns as a way to refer to common solutions in the field of interface design is becoming widespread. However, contrary to the situation for software patterns, definitions of interaction patterns do not enjoy a common standard yet. Moreover, patterns are developed for design aspects as diverse as: user experience, layout, action coordination, or specification of entire widgets, reflecting the complexity of the field. As a consequence, research on formalisation of interaction patterns is not developed, and few attempts have been made to extend techniques developed for design pattern formalisation. We show here how an extension to an approach to pattern formalisation recently proposed by the authors can be usefully employed to formalize some classes of interaction patterns, to express relations like subtyping and composition, and to detect conflicts.


Design Pattern Interaction Pattern Variable Part Pattern Language Triple Graph 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ahmed, S., Ashraf, G.: Model-based user interface engineering with design patterns. Journal of Systems and Software 80(8), 1408 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almendros-Jiménez, J.M., Iribarne, L.: An extension of UML for the modeling of WIMP user interfaces. J. Vis. Lang. Comput. 19, 695–720 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borchers, J.: A Pattern Approach to Interaction Design. Wiley, Chichester (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bottoni, P., Guerra, E., de Lara, J.: Formal foundation for pattern-based modelling. In: Chechik, M., Wirsing, M. (eds.) FASE 2009. LNCS, vol. 5503, pp. 278–293. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bottoni, P., Guerra, E., de Lara, J.: A language-independent and formal approach to pattern-based modelling with support for composition and analysis. Inf. Soft. Technol. 52(8), 821–844 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bottoni, P., Guerra, E., de Lara, J.: Towards a formal notion of interaction pattern. In: Proc. VL/HCC 2010, pp. 235–239. IEEE CS Press, Los Alamitos (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Breiner, K., Seissler, M., Meixner, G., Forbrig, P., Seffah, A., Klöckner, K.: PEICS: towards HCI patterns into engineering of interactive systems. In: Proc. PEICS 2010, pp. 1–3. ACM Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calvary, G., Coutaz, J., Thevenin, D., Limbourg, Q., Bouillon, L., Vanderdonckt, J.: A unifying reference framework for multi-target user interfaces. Interacting with Computers 15(3), 289–308 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Campos, P., Nunes, N.: Towards useful and usable interaction design tools: Canonsketch. Interacting with Computers 19, 597–613 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Lara, J., Bardohl, R., Ehrig, H., Ehrig, K., Prange, U., Taentzer, G.: Attributed graph transformation with node type inheritance. Theor. Comput. Sci. 376(3), 139–163 (2007)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Didonet Del Fabro, M., Valduriez, P.: Towards the efficient development of model transformations using model weaving and matching transformations. Software and Systems Modeling 8(3), 305–324 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dong, J., Yang, S., Zhang, K.: Visualizing design patterns in their applications and compositions. IEEE TSE 33(7), 433–453 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ehrig, H., Ehrig, K., Habel, A., Pennemann, K.-H.: Theory of constraints and application conditions: From graphs to high-level structures. Fundam. Inform. 74(1), 135–166 (2006)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fincher, S.: PLML: pattern language markup language, (accessed September 14, 2010)
  15. 15.
    Folmer, E., van Gurp, J., Bosch, J.: A framework for capturing the relationship between usability and software architecture. Software Process: Improvement and Practice 8(2), 67–87 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Folmer, E., van Welie, M., Bosch, J.: Bridging patterns: An approach to bridge gaps between SE and HCI. Inf. Soft. Technol. 48(2), 69–89 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    France, R.B., Kim, D.-K., Ghosh, S., Song, E.: A UML-based pattern specification technique. IEEE TSE 30(3), 193–206 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J.M.: Design Patterns. Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison Wesley, Reading (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Infragistics: (accessed September 14, 2010)
  20. 20.
    Juristo Juzgado, N., López, M., Moreno, A.M., Sánchez Segura, M.: Improving software usability through architectural patterns. In: ICSE Workshop on SE-HCI, pp. 12–19 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim, S.K., Carrington, D.: Using integrated metamodeling to define OO design patterns with Object-Z and UML. In: APSEC, pp. 257–264 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mahemoff, M., Johnston, L.J.: Pattern languages for usability: An investigation of alternative approaches. In: Tanaka, J. (ed.) APCHI 1998, pp. 25–31. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mori, G., Paternò, F., Santoro, C.: Design and development of multidevice user interfaces through multiple logical descriptions. IEEE TSE 30, 507–520 (2004), DOI Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Niere, J., Schäfer, W., Wadsack, J.P., Wendehals, L., Welsh, J.: Towards pattern-based design recovery. In: ICSE 2002, pp. 338–348 (2002)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nunes, N.: Representing user-interface patterns in UML. In: Masood, A., Léonard, M., Pigneur, Y., Patel, S. (eds.) OOIS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2817, pp. 142–151. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Orejas, F.: Attributed graph constraints. In: Ehrig, H., Heckel, R., Rozenberg, G., Taentzer, G. (eds.) ICGT 2008. LNCS, vol. 5214, pp. 274–288. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pribeanu, C., Vanderdonckt, J.: A transformational approach for pattern-based design of user interfaces. In: ICAS 2008, pp. 47–54. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Radermacher, A.: Support for design patterns through graph transformation tools. In: Münch, M., Nagl, M. (eds.) AGTIVE 1999. LNCS, vol. 1779, pp. 111–126. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schattkowsky, T., Lohmann, M.: Towards employing UML model mappings for platform indepedent user interface design. In: MDDAUI 2005. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 159, (2005)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schürr, A.: Specification of graph translators with triple graph grammars. In: Mayr, E.W., Schmidt, G., Tinhofer, G. (eds.) WG 1994. LNCS, vol. 903, pp. 151–163. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Scott, B., Neil, T.: Designing Web Interfaces: Principles and Patterns for Rich Interactions. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seffah, A., Taleb, M., Habieb-Mammar, H., Abran, A.: Reconciling usability and interactive system architecture using patterns. Journal of Systems and Software 81(11), 1845–1852 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Taibi, T., Ngo, D.C.L.: Formal specification of design pattern combination using BPSL. Inf. Soft. Technol. 45, 157–170 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tidwell, J.: Designing Interfaces. O’Reilly, Sebastopol (2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tourwé, T., Mens, T.: High-level transformations to support framework-based software development. ENTCS 72(4) (2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Toxboe, A.: Pattern library, (accessed September 14, 2010)
  37. 37.
    UsiXML: (accessed September 14, 2010)
  38. 38.
    Valverde, F., Pastor, O.: Applying interaction patterns: Towards a model-driven approach for RIA development. In: IWWOST 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    van Welie, M.: Ui patterns, (accessed September 14, 2010)
  40. 40.
    van Welie, M., Trætteberg, H.: Interaction patterns in user interfaces. In: PLoP 2000, pp. 13–16 (2000)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vanderdonckt, J., Simarro, F.M.: Generative pattern-based design of user interfaces. In: Proc. PEICS 2010, pp. 12–19. ACM Press, New York (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Bottoni
    • 1
  • Esther Guerra
    • 2
  • Juan de Lara
    • 2
  1. 1.Università di Roma “Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.Universidad Autónoma de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations