Serrawettins and Other Surfactants Produced by Serratia
Serrawettins are nonionic biosurfactants produced by Serratia marcescens. Three molecular species, serrawettin W1, cyclo(d-3-hydroxydecanoyl-l-seryl)2; W2, d-3-hydroxydecanoyl-d-leucyl-l-seryl-l-threonyl-d-phenylalanyl-l-isoleucyl lactone; and W3, cyclodepsipeptide composed of five amino acids and one dodecanoic acid, have been reported. Serratia rubidaea produces rubiwettin R1, linked d-3-hydroxy fatty acids and RG1, β-glucopyranosyl linked d-3-hydroxy fatty acids. These biosurfactants are produced mainly at 30°C, but not at 37°C, and secreted through extracellular vesicles on solid media. The contribution of the biosurfactants to spreading growth in surface environments has been determined, and it is prominent under nutrient-poor conditions. Analyses of S. marcescens mutants revealed the involvement of three novel genes for serrawettin W1 production. The gene pswP encodes a phosphopantetheinyl transferase group enzyme, swrW encodes a unimodular synthetase belonging to the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) family, and hexS encodes a LysR-type transcriptional regulator working as a downregulator of Serratia exolipids and some exoenzymes. Autoinducer-dependent serrawettin W2 production has been elucidated by the finding of SwrI/SwrR (homolog of LuxI/LuxR) and N-acyl homoserine lactones in the study on quorum-sensing controlled-swarming of S. marcescens.
KeywordsAcyl Carrier Protein Extracellular Vesicle Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Bacterial Mass Wetting Activity
The authors are indebted to all their coworkers at Niigata University and Chuo University. This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, and by a grant from the Urakami Foundation.
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