Improved Preimage Attack for 68-Step HAS-160

  • Deukjo Hong
  • Bonwook Koo
  • Yu Sasaki
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5984)

Abstract

In this paper, we improve previous preimage attacks on hash function HAS-160, which is standardized in Korea. We show that the last 68 steps out of 80 steps of HAS-160 can be attacked, while a previous attack works for only intermediate 52 steps. We also show that the first 67 steps of HAS-160 can be attacked. These attacks are based on the meet-in-the-middle attack, which is also used in the previous attack. Recently, various techniques of preimage attacks have been proposed on other hash functions. We show that these techniques can also be applied to HAS-160 and the number of attacked steps can be improved. For the attack on 68 steps, we first generate pseudo-preimages with a complexity of 2150.7, and then convert them to a preimage with a complexity of 2156.3. This attack uses a memory of 212 ×7 words. To the best of our knowledge, attacking 68 steps is the best of all attacks on HAS-160 hash function.

Keywords

HAS-160 hash function preimage meet-in-the-middle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Federal Register/Notices Vol. 72(212), November 2 (2007), http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/documents/FR_Notice_Nov07.pdf
  2. 2.
    Telecommunications Technology Association.: Hash Function Standard Part 2: Hash Function Algorithm Standard, HAS-160 (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Secure Hash Standard (SHS) (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 180-3) (2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-3/fips180-3_final.pdf
  4. 4.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: A preimage attack for 52-steps HAS-160. In: Lee, P.J., Cheon, J.H. (eds.) ICISC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5461, pp. 302–317. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aoki, K., Sasaki, Y.: Meet-in-the-middle preimage attacks against reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1. In: Halevi, S. (ed.) Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO 2009. LNCS, vol. 5677, pp. 70–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yun, A., Sung, S.H., Park, S., Chang, D., Hong, S., Cho, H.S.: Finding collision on 45-step HAS-160. In: Won, D.H., Kim, S. (eds.) ICISC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3935, pp. 146–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cho, H.-S., Park, S., Sung, S.H., Yun, A.: Collision search attack for 53-step HAS-160. In: Rhee, M.S., Lee, B. (eds.) ICISC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4296, pp. 286–295. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mendel, F., Rijmen, V.: Colliding message pair for 53-step HAS-160. In: Nam, K.-H., Rhee, G. (eds.) ICISC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4817, pp. 324–334. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saarinen, M.J.O.: A meet-in-the-middle collision attack against the new FORK-256. In: Srinathan, K., Rangan, C.P., Yung, M. (eds.) INDOCRYPT 2007, vol. 4859, pp. 10–17. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leurent, G.: MD4 is not one-way. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) FSE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5086, pp. 412–428. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aoki, K., Sasaki, Y.: Preimage attacks on one-block MD4, 63-step MD5 and more. In: Avanzi, R.M., Keliher, L., Sica, F. (eds.) SAC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5381, pp. 103–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Aumasson, J.P., Meier, W., Mendel, F.: Preimage attacks on 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5. In: Avanzi, R.M., Keliher, L., Sica, F. (eds.) SAC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5381, pp. 120–135. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: Preimage attacks on 3, 4, and 5-pass HAVAL. In: Pieprzyk, J. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2008. LNCS, vol. 5350, pp. 253–271. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chang, D., Hong, S., Kang, C., Kang, J., Kim, J., Lee, C., Lee, J., Lee, J., Lee, S., Lee, Y., Lim, J., Sung, J.: ARIRANG. Available at NIST home page, http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/hash/sha-3/Round1/submissions_rnd1.html
  15. 15.
    Hong, D., Kim, W.H., Koo, B.: Preimage attack on ARIRANG. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2009/147 (2009), http://eprint.iacr.org/2009/147
  16. 16.
    Hong, D., Kim, W.H., Koo, B., Kwon, D.: Preimage attacks on reduced steps of ARIRANG and PKC 1998-Hash. Number 8A-2 in USB memory distributed at ICISC 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: Finding preimages in full MD5 faster than exhaustive search. In: Joux, A. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5479, pp. 134–152. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nan Kyoung Park, J.H.H., Lee, P.J.: HAS-V: A new hash function with variable output length. In: Stinson, D.R., Tavares, S. (eds.) SAC 2000. LNCS, vol. 2012, pp. 202–216. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mendel, F., Rijmen, V.: Weaknesses in the HAS-V compression function. In: Nam, K.-H., Rhee, G. (eds.) ICISC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4817, pp. 335–345. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Menezes, A.J., van Oorschot, P.C., Vanstone, S.A.: Handbook of applied cryptography. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1997)MATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cannière, C.D., Rechberger, C.: Preimages for reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1. In: Wagner, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2008. LNCS, vol. 5157, pp. 179–202. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelsey, J., Schneier, B.: Second preimages on n-bit hash functions for much less than 2n work. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 474–490. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dean, R.D.: Formal aspects of mobile code security. Ph.D Dissertation, Princeton University (January 1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deukjo Hong
    • 1
  • Bonwook Koo
    • 1
  • Yu Sasaki
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.The Attached Institute of ETRI 
  2. 2.NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation 
  3. 3.The University of Electro-Communications 

Personalised recommendations