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Sapindaceae

  • P. Acevedo-Rodríguez
  • P. C. van Welzen
  • F. Adema
  • R. W. J. M. van der Ham
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 10)

Abstract

Trees, treelets, shrubs, lianas or herbaceous climbers; cork superficial; stems of climbing species (i.e., Serjania, Paullinia, Urvillea, Houssayanthus, and Thinouia) usually with multiple vascular cylinders. Leaves pinnately or ternately compound or palmate, or rarely simple, alternate, rarely opposite; proximal leaflets seldom reduced, reflexed, and covering the stem to resemble a pair of stipules (pseudostipules), distal leaflet in most arboreal and shrubby species rudimentary; stipules present only in climbing species, minute to large. Inflorescences axillary, terminal, pseudo-terminal, cauliflorous or ramiflorous, thyrso-paniculate, racemose, spicate, or fasciculate, or flowers solitary. Flowers 5-merous, regular, or less often 4-merous and obliquely zygomorphic, bisexual or more often functionally unisexual by reduction (plants monoecious or rarely dioecious); sepals distinct or connate at base; petals usually white or light yellow, rarely 0, usually ornamented by an adaxial appendage; appendages variously shaped, mostly petaloid, simple, bifurcate, or hood-shaped, basally adnate to the petal or just a prolongation of petal margins, concealing the nectary; disk extrastaminal, annular or unilateral, often lobed, cup-shaped or dish-shaped, very rarely on both sides of the stamens or intrastaminal; stamens (3–)5–8(–30); filaments distinct or connate at base, equal or unequal in length; anthers dorsifixed or basifixed, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; sterile stamens present in pistillate flowers; gynoecia syncarpous, (1–)3(–8)-carpellate; carpels with 1, 2, or exceptionally many (7–8 in Xanthoceras, 8 in Magonia) ovules; style terminal or exceptionally gynobasic (Deinbollia), 2–3-branched, or with simple, 2–3-lobed, capitate stigma, sometimes (Acer) the style branches elongate and the style nearly 0; pistil usually rudimentary in staminate flowers. Fruit a septifragal or loculicidal capsule, a schizocarp with winged or non-winged mericarps, baccate or rarely a drupe. Seeds sessile or exceptionally (Distichostemon) subtended by a funiculus, variously shaped, exalate or rarely winged, naked, with a partial to complete sarcotesta, or an arillode (arising from the integuments); embryo oily or starchy, lacking endosperm, notorhizal or lomatorhizal with straight, curved or plicate, fleshy cotyledons, the radicle often separated by a deep fold in the testa that forms a radicular pocket.

Keywords

Single Ovule Outer Sepal Stigma Capitate Dioecious Tree Distal Leaflet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Acevedo-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • P. C. van Welzen
    • 2
  • F. Adema
    • 2
  • R. W. J. M. van der Ham
    • 2
  1. 1.Smithsonian Institution, Dept. of BotanyNMNH MRC-166WashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Nationaal Herbarium NederlandUniversiteit Leiden branchLeidenThe Netherlands

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