Agents, Multi-Agent Systems and Declarative Programming: What, When, Where, Why, Who, How?

  • Matteo Baldoni
  • Cristina Baroglio
  • Viviana Mascardi
  • Andrea Omicini
  • Paolo Torroni
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6125)


This chapter tackles the relation between declarative languages and multi-agent systems by following the dictates of the five Ws (and one H) that characterize investigations. The aim is to present this research field, which has a long-term tradition, and discuss about its future. The first question to answer is “What? What are declarative agents and multi-agent systems?”. Therefore, we will introduce the history of declarative agent systems up to the state of the art by answering the question “When? When did research on them begin?”. We will, then, move to the question “Where? Where can it take place?”: in which kind of real applications and for which kind of problems declarative agents and MAS have already proven useful? Connected to where is “Why? Why should it happen?”. We will discuss the benefits of adopting the abstractions offered by declarative approaches for developing communication, interaction, cooperation mechanisms. We will compare with other technologies, mainly service-based and object-oriented ones. “Who? Who can be involved?”: in order to exploit this kind of technology what sort of background does a specialist have to acquire? We address this question by looking at the Italian landscape of Computer Science research and education. Finally, with the question “How? How can it happen?” we will shortly report some examples of existing declarative languages and frameworks for the specification, verification, implementation and prototyping of agents and MAS.


Logic Program Multiagent System Logic Programming Computational Logic Situation Calculus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    OWL-S: Semantic markup for web services,
  2. 2.
    Reasoning on the web with rules and semantics, network of excellence,
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Alberti, M., Chesani, F., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P., Torroni, P.: The SOCS computational logic approach to the specification and verification of agent societies. In: Priami, C., Quaglia, P. (eds.) GC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3267, pp. 314–339. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alberti, M., Chesani, F., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P., Torroni, P.: Compliance verification of agent interaction: a logic-based tool. Applied Artificial Intelligence 20(2-4), 133–157 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alberti, M., Chesani, F., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P., Torroni, P.: Verifiable agent interaction in abductive logic programming: The sciff framework. ACM Trans. Comput. Logic 9(4), 1–43 (2008)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alberti, M., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P., Torroni, P.: Modeling Interactions Using Social Integrity Constraints: A Resource Sharing Case Study. In: Leite, J., Omicini, A., Sterling, L., Torroni, P. (eds.) DALT 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2990, pp. 243–262. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alechina, N., Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F., Jago, M., Logan, B.: Belief revision for AgentSpeak agents. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2006, pp. 1288–1290. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alonso, G., Casati, F., Kuno, H., Machiraju, V.: Web Services. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ancona, D., Mascardi, V., Hübner, J.F., Bordini, R.H.: Coo-AgentSpeak: Cooperation in AgentSpeak through Plan Exchange. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2004, pp. 698–705 (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Appiani, E., Martelli, M., Mascardi, V.: A multi-agent approach to vehicle monitoring in motorway. Technical report, DISI – Università di Genova. DISI TR-00-13. Presented at the poster session of the 2nd European Workshop on Advanced Video-based Surveillance Systems, AVBS 2001 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arisha, K., Eiter, T., Kraus, S., Ozcan, F., Ross, R., Subrahmanian, V.S.: IMPACT: A platform for collaborating agents. IEEE Intelligent Systems 14(2), 64–72 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C., Martelli, A., Patti, V.: Reasoning about interaction protocols for customizing web service selection and composition. JLAP, special issue on Web Services and Formal Methods 70(1), 53–73 (2007)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C., Martelli, A., Patti, V., Schifanella, C.: Reasoning on choreographies and capability requirements. International Journal of BPIM 2(4), 247–261 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C., Patti, V.: Web-based adaptive tutoring: an approach based on logic agents and reasoning about actions. Artificial Intelligence Review 22, 3–39 (2004)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C., Patti, V., Schifanella, C.: Conservative re-use ensuring matches for service selection. In: Proc. of Sixth European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems, EUMAS 2008, Bath, UK (December 2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baldoni, M., Giordano, L., Martelli, A., Patti, V.: Programming Rational Agents in a Modal Action Logic. AMAI, Special issue on Logic-Based Agent Implementation 41(2-4), 207–257 (2004)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baselice, S., Bonatti, P.A., Faella, M.: Policy language specification. Technical Report I2-D2, REWERSE network of excellence (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bazzocchi, L.: Lo SMAU scopre l’intelligenza artificiale. Office Automation, 86–90 (November 1988),
  20. 20.
    Bellifemine, F.L., Caire, G., Greenwood, D.: Developing Multi-Agent Systems with JADE. Wiley, Chichester (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benfield, S.S., Hendrickson, J., Galanti, D.: Making a strong business case for multiagent technology. In: AAMAS 2006, pp. 10–15. ACM, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bonatti, P.A., De Coi, J.L., Olmedilla, D., Sauro, L.: Policy-driven negotiations and explanations: Exploiting logic-programming for trust management, privacy & security. In: Garcia de la Banda, M., Pontelli, E. (eds.) ICLP 2008. LNCS, vol. 5366, pp. 779–784. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bonatti, P.A., Duma, C., Fuchs, N.E., Nejdl, W., Olmedilla, D., Peer, J., Shahmehri, N.: Semantic web policies – A discussion of requirements and research issues. In: Sure, Y., Domingue, J. (eds.) ESWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4011, pp. 712–724. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bonatti1, P.A., Coi, J.L.D., Olmedilla, D.: Protunes technical specifications. Technical Report I2-D12, REWERSE (2007)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bordini, R.H., Fisher, M., Visser, W., Wooldridge, M.: Verifying multi-agent programs by model checking. JAAMAS 12(2), 239–256 (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F.: BDI agent programming in AgentSpeak using Jason (tutorial paper). In: Toni, F., Torroni, P. (eds.) CLIMA 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3900, pp. 143–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F., Wooldridge, M. (eds.): Programming Multi-Agent Systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. Wiley, Chichester (2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bozzo, L., Mascardi, V., Ancona, D., Busetta, P.: CooWS: Adaptive BDI agents meet service-oriented computing. In: Proc. of WWW/Internet, pp. 205–209 (2005)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braubach, L., Pokahr, A., Lamersdorf, W.: Jadex: A short overview. In: Main Conference Net.ObjectDays 2004, pp. 195–207 (2004)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Briola, D., Mascardi, V., Martelli, M.: Intelligent agents that monitor, diagnose and solve problems: Two success stories of industry-university collaboration. Journal of Information Assurance and Security 4(2), 106–116 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brogi, A., Ciancarini, P.: The concurrent language, Shared Prolog. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS) 13(1), 99–123 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bryl, V., Mello, P., Montali, M., Torroni, P., Zannone, N.: B-tropos: Agent-oriented requirements engineering meets computational logic for declarative business process modelling and verification. In: Sadri, F., Satoh, K. (eds.) CLIMA VIII 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5056, pp. 157–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burmeister, B., Arnold, M., Copaciu, F., Rimassa, G.: BDI-agents for agile goal-oriented business processes. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2008, pp. 37–44. IFAAMAS (2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burmeister, B., Steiert, H.-P., Bauer, T., Baumgärtel, H.: Agile processes through goal- and context-oriented business process modeling. In: Eder, J., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM Workshops 2006. LNCS, vol. 4103, pp. 217–228. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Busetta, P., Ronnquist, R., Hodgson, A., Lucas, A.: JACK intelligent agents – components for intelligent agents in Java. AgentLink News Letter 2 (1999)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Casella, G., Mascardi, V.: West2East: exploiting WEb Service Technologies to Engineer Agent-based SofTware. IJAOSE 1(3/4), 396–434 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chesani, F., Mello, P., Montali, M., Torroni, P.: Commitment tracking via the reactive event calculus. In: Proc. of IJCAI, pp. 91–96 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cohen, P.R., Levesque, H.J.: Intention is choice with commitment. Artificial Intelligence 42 (1990)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Colombetti, M., Fornara, N., Verdicchio, M.: A social approach to communication in multiagent systems. In: Leite, J., Omicini, A., Sterling, L., Torroni, P. (eds.) DALT 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2990, pp. 191–220. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Costantini, S., Mostarda, L., Tocchio, A., Tsintza, P.: Dalica: Agent-based ambient intelligence for cultural-heritage scenarios. IEEE Intelligent Systems 23(2), 34–41 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Costantini, S., Tocchio, A.: The DALI logic programming agent-oriented language. In: Alferes, J.J., Leite, J. (eds.) JELIA 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3229, pp. 685–688. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cuppari, A., Guida, P.L., Martelli, M., Mascardi, V., Zini, F.: An agent-based prototype for freight trains traffic management. In: Proceedings of the FMERail Workshop 5. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dal Palù, A., Torroni, P.: 25 Years of Applications of Logic Programming. In: Dovier, A., Pontelli, E. (eds.) 25 Years of Logic Programming in Italy, ch. 14. LNCS, vol. 6125, pp. 300–328. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dastani, M.: 2APL: a practical agent programming language. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 16(3), 214–248 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dastani, M., de Boer, F.S., Dignum, F., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Programming agent deliberation – an approach illustrated using the 3APL language. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Davies, W.H., Edwards, P.: Agent-K: An integration of AOP & KQML. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Information Agents (1994)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    De Giacomo, G., Lespérance, Y., Levesque, H., Sardiña, S.: On the semantics of deliberation in IndiGolog – from theory to implementation. In: Proceedings of KR 2002, pp. 603–614. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2002)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    De Giacomo, G., Lespérance, Y., Levesque, H.J.: Congolog, a concurrent programming language based on the situation calculus. Artificial Intelligence 121, 109–169 (2000)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Delato, M., Martelli, A., Martelli, M., Mascardi, V., Verri, A.: A multimedia, multichannel, and personalized news provider. In: Ventre, G., Canonico, R. (eds.) MIPS 2003. LNCS, vol. 2899, pp. 388–399. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dennett, D.C.: The Intentional Stance. MIT Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Denti, E., Omicini, A., Ricci, A.: Multi-paradigm Java-Prolog integration in tuProlog. Sci. Comput. Program. 57(2), 217–250 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dickinson, I., Wooldridge, M.: Towards practical reasoning agents for the semantic web. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2003, pp. 827–834 (2003)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    d’Inverno, M., Hindriks, K.V., Luck, M.: A formal architecture for the 3APL agent programming language. In: Bowen, J.P., Dunne, S., Galloway, A., King, S. (eds.) B 2000, ZUM 2000, and ZB 2000. LNCS, vol. 1878, pp. 168–187. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    d’Inverno, M., Kinny, D., Luck, M., Wooldridge, M.: A formal specification of dMARS. In: Rao, A., Singh, M.P., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) ATAL 1997. LNCS, vol. 1365, pp. 155–176. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    d’Inverno, M., Luck, M.: Engineering AgentSpeak(L): A formal computational model. Logic and Computation Journal 8(3), 1–27 (1998)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dix, J., Munoz-Avila, H., Nau, D.: IMPACTing SHOP: Putting an AI planner into a Multi-Agent Environment. Annals of Mathematics and AI 4(37), 381–407 (2003)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dovier, A., Pontelli, E. (eds.): 25 Years of Logic Programming in Italy. LNCS, vol. 6125. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dung, P.M.: On the acceptability of arguments and its fundamental role in nonmonotonic reasoning, logic programming and n-person games. Artif. Intell. 77(2), 321–358 (1995)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eiter, T., Mascardi, V., Subrahmanian, V.S.: Error-Tolerant Agents. In: Kakas, A.C., Sadri, F. (eds.) Computational Logic: Logic Programming and Beyond, part I. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2407, pp. 586–625. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eiter, T., Subrahmanian, V.S., Pick, G.: Heterogeneous active agents, I: Semantics. Artificial Intelligence 108(1-2), 179–255 (1999)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Evertsz, R., Fletcher, M., Jones, R., Jarvis, J., Brusey, J., Dance, S.: Implementing industrial multi-agent systems using JACK. In: Dastani, M.M., Dix, J., El Fallah-Seghrouchni, A. (eds.) PROMAS 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3067, pp. 18–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fensel, D., Lausen, H., de Bruijn, J., Stollberg, M., Roman, D., Polleres, A.: Enabling Semantic Web Services: The Web Service Modeling Ontology. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Finger, M., McBrien, P., Owens, R.: Databases and executable temporal logic. In: Comission of the European Communities (ed.) Proceedings of the Annual ESPRIT Conference 1991, pp. 288–302 (1991)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    FIPA Home Page,
  65. 65.
    Fisher, M.: A normal form for first-order temporal formulae. In: Kapur, D. (ed.) CADE 1992. LNCS, vol. 607, pp. 370–384. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fisher, M.: Concurrent METATEM – A language for modeling reactive systems. In: Reeve, M., Bode, A., Wolf, G. (eds.) PARLE 1993. LNCS, vol. 694, pp. 185–196. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fisher, M.: A survey of Concurrent METATEM – the language and its applications. In: Gabbay, D.M., Ohlbach, H.J. (eds.) ICTL 1994. LNCS, vol. 827, pp. 480–505. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fisher, M.: Implementing BDI-like systems by direct execution. In: Proc. of IJCAI 1997, pp. 316–321. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1997)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fisher, M.: Representing abstract agent architectures. In: Rao, A.S., Singh, M.P., Müller, J.P. (eds.) ATAL 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1555, pp. 227–241. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fisher, M., Bordini, R., Hirsch, B., Torroni, P.: Computational logics and agents: A road map of current technologies and future trends. Computational Intelligence 23(1), 61–91 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fisher, M., Ghidini, C.: Programming resource-bounded deliberative agents. In: Proc. of IJCAI 1999, pp. 200–205. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1999)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fisher, M., Ghidini, C.: The ABC of rational agent programming. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2002, pp. 849–856. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fisher, M., Kakoudakis, T.: Flexible agent grouping in executable temporal logic. In: Intensional Programming II (ISPLIP 1999). World Scientific Publishers, Singapore (2000)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fisher, M., Wooldridge, M.: On the formal specification and verification of multi-agent systems. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems 6(1), 37–65 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Forgy, C.: Ops5 user’s manual. Technical Report CMU-CS-81-135, Carnegie-Mellon University (1981)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fornara, N., Colombetti, M.: A commitment-based approach to agent communication. Applied Artificial Intelligence 18(9-10), 853–866 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA). Agent Communication Language Specifications (2002)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Friedman-Hill, E.: Jess in Action: Java Rule-Based Systems (In Action series). Manning Publications (2002)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fritz, C., Baier, J.A., McIlraith, S.A.: ConGolog, sin trans: Compiling ConGolog into basic action theories for planning and beyond. In: Proc. of 11th Int. Conf. on PKRR, pp. 600–610 (2008)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Frühwirth, T.: Theory and practice of constraint handling rules. Journal of Logic Programming 37(1-3), 95–138 (1998)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gavanelli, M., Alberti, M., Lamma, E.: Integration of abductive reasoning and constraint optimization in SCIFF. In: Hill, P.M., Warren, D.S. (eds.) ICLP 2009. LNCS, vol. 5649, pp. 387–401. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Georgeff, M.P., Lansky, A.L.: Reactive reasoning and planning. In: Proc. of AAAI 1987, pp. 677–682 (1987)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Georgeff, M.P., Rao, A.S.: A profile of the Australian AI institute. IEEE Expert 11(6), 89–92 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Giordano, L., Martelli, A., Schwind, C.: Ramification and causality in a modal action logic. Journal of Logic and Computation 10(5), 626–662 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Giordano, L., Martelli, A., Schwind, C.: Reasoning About Actions in Dynamic Linear Time Temporal Logic. Journal of the IGPL 9(2), 298–303 (2001)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Giordano, L., Martelli, A., Schwind, C.: Specifying and Verifying Interaction Protocols in a Temporal Action Logic. Journal of Applied Logic 5(2), 214–234 (2007)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gray, R.S., Kotz, D., Cybenko, G., Rus, D.: Agent Tcl. In: Mobile Agents: Explanations and Examples. Manning Publishing (1997)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Harbers, M., van den Bosch, K., Meyer, J.: Enhancing training by using agents with a theory of mind. In: EduMAS 2009, Proceedings, pp. 23–30 (2009)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Harbers, M., van den Bosch, K., Meyer, J.-J.C.: A study into preferred explanations of virtual agent behavior. In: Ruttkay, Z., Kipp, M., Nijholt, A., Vilhjálmsson, H.H. (eds.) IVA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5773, pp. 132–145. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hindriks, K.V., Boer, F.S.D., der Hoek, W.V., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Agent programming in 3APL. AAMAS Journal 2(4), 357–401 (1999)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hindriks, K.V., de Boer, F.S., van der Hoek, W., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Formal semantics for an abstract agent programming language. In: Rao, A., Singh, M.P., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) ATAL 1997. LNCS, vol. 1365, pp. 215–229. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hindriks, K.V., de Boer, F.S., van der Hoek, W., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Agent programming with declarative goals. In: Castelfranchi, C., Lespérance, Y. (eds.) ATAL 2000. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1986, pp. 228–243. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hinrichs, T.L., Gude, N.S., Casado, M., Mitchell, J.C., Shenker, S.: Practical declarative network management. In: WREN 2009: Proceedings of the 1st ACM workshop on Research on enterprise networking, pp. 1–10. ACM, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hirsch, B., Fisher, M., Ghidini, C.: Organising logic-based agents. In: Hinchey, M.G., Rash, J.L., Truszkowski, W.F., Rouff, C.A., Gordon-Spears, D.F. (eds.) FAABS 2002. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2699, pp. 15–27. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Huber, M.J.: JAM: A BDI-theoretic mobile agent architecture. In: Agents 1999, Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Proceedings, pp. 236–243 (1999)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hübner, J.F., Bordini, R.H.: Developing a team of gold miners using Jason. In: Dastani, M.M., El Fallah Seghrouchni, A., Ricci, A., Winikoff, M. (eds.) ProMAS 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4908, pp. 241–245. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ingrand, F.F., Georgeff, M.P., Rao, A.S.: An architecture for real-time reasoning and system control. IEEE Expert Magazine 7(6), 33–44 (1992)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Issarny, V., Caporuscio, M., Georgantas, N.: A perspective on the future of middleware-based software engineering. In: FOSE 2007: 2007 Future of Software Engineering, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 244–258. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jennings, N.R., Mamdani, E.H., Corera, J.M., Laresgoiti, I., Perriollat, F., Skarek, P., Zsolt Varga, L.: Using Archon to develop real-world DAI applications, part 1. IEEE Expert 11(6), 64–70 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jhingran, A.: Enterprise information mashups: integrating information, simply. In: Proc. of VLDB 2006, pp. 3–4. VLDB Endowment (2006)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kakas, A.C., Kowalski, R., Toni, F.: The role of abduction in logic programming. In: Gabbay, C.H.D.M., Robinson, J. (eds.) Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming 5, pp. 235–324. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kavantzas, N., Burdett, D., Ritzinger, G., Fletcher, T., Lafon, Y.: Web services choreography description language version 1.0 (2004),
  103. 103.
    Kellett, A., Fisher, M.: Automata representations for concurrent METATEM. In: Proc. of TIME 1997, pp. 12–19. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (1997)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kellett, A., Fisher, M.: Concurrent METATEM as a coordination language. In: Garlan, D., Le Métayer, D. (eds.) COORDINATION 1997. LNCS, vol. 1282, pp. 418–421. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kinny, D.: ViP: a visual programming language for plan execution systems. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2002, pp. 721–728 (2002)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Klan, D., Hose, K., Sattler, K.-U.: Developing and deploying sensor network applications with anduin. In: Proc. of DMSN 2009, pp. 1–6. ACM, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Klapiscak, T., Bordini, R.H.: JASDL: A practical programming approach combining agent and semantic web technologies. In: Baldoni, M., Son, T.C., van Riemsdijk, M.B., Winikoff, M. (eds.) DALT 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5397, pp. 91–110. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Labrou, Y., Finin, T.: Semantics and conversations for an agent communication language. In: Readings in Agents, pp. 235–242. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1997)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lange, D., Mitsuru, O.: Programming and Deploying Java Mobile Agents with Aglets (1998)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Leckie, C., Senjen, R., Ward, B., Zhao, M.: Communication and coordination for intelligent fault diagnosis agents. In: 8th IFIP/IEEE International Workshop for Distributed Systems Operations and Management, DSOM 1997, Proceedings, pp. 280–291 (1997)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lee, J., Durfee, E.H.: Structured circuit semantics for reactive plan execution systems. In: Proc. of AAAI 1994, pp. 1232–1237 (1994)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Leite, J., Omicini, A., Sterling, L., Torroni, P. (eds.): DALT 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2990. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Levesque, H.J., Pagnucco, M.: Legolog: Inexpensive experiments in cognitive robotics. In: Proc. of CogRob 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Levesque, H.J., Reiter, R., Lespérance, Y., Lin, F., Scherl, R.B.: Golog: A logic programming language for dynamic domains. Journal of Logic Programming 31, 59–84 (1997)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Machado, R., Bordini, R.H.: Running agentSpeak(L) agents on SIM_AGENT. In: Meyer, J.-J.C., Tambe, M. (eds.) ATAL 2001. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2333, pp. 158–174. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mascardi, V., Demergasso, D., Ancona, D.: Languages for programming BDI-style agents: an overview. In: Corradini, F., Paoli, F.D., Merelli, E., Omicini, A. (eds.) WOA 2005: Dagli Oggetti agli Agenti, Proceedings, pp. 9–15. Pitagora Editrice Bologna (2005)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mascardi, V., Martelli, M., Gungui, I.: DCaseLP: a prototyping environment for multi-language agent systems. In: Dastani, M.M., El Fallah Seghrouchni, A., Leite, J., Torroni, P. (eds.) LADS 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5118, pp. 139–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mascardi, V., Martelli, M., Sterling, L.: Logic-based specification languages for intelligent software agents. J. of TPLP 4(4), 429–494 (2004)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Banzi, M., Caire, G., Gotta, D.: Wade: A software platform to develop mission critical applications exploiting agents and workflows. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mellis, W.: TWAICE: A knowledge engineering tool. Inf. Syst. 15(1), 137–150 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Milner, R.: Communicating and Mobile Systems: the Pi-Calculus, June 1999. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Minton, S., Knoblock, C.A., Kuokka, D.R., Gil, Y., Joseph, R.L., Carbonell, J.G.: Prodigy 2.0: The manual and tutorial. Technical Report CMU-CS-89-146, Carnegie-Mellon University (1989)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Montali, M.: Specification and Verification of Open Declarative Interaction Models: a Logic-Based Framework. PhD thesis, DEIS, University of Bologna, Italy (2009)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Montali, M., Pesic, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P., Chesani, F., Mello, P., Storari, S.: Declarative specification and verification of service choreographies. ACM Transactions on the Web (2010)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Montali, M., Torroni, P., Alberti, M., Chesani, F., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P.: Verification from declarative specifications using logic programming. In: Garcia de la Banda, M., Pontelli, E. (eds.) ICLP 2008. LNCS, vol. 5366, pp. 440–454. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Moreira, Á.F., Vieira, R., Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F.: Agent-oriented programming with underlying ontological reasoning. In: Baldoni, M., Endriss, U., Omicini, A., Torroni, P. (eds.) DALT 2005. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3904, pp. 155–170. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Morley, D., Myers, K.: The SPARK agent framework. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2004, pp. 714–721 (2004)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Myers, K.L., Wilkins, D.E.: The Act Formalism, Version 2.2. Technical report, SRI International AI Center Technical Report, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (1997)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nwana, H.S., Ndumu, D.T.: An introduction to agent technology. In: Nwana, H.S., Azarmi, N. (eds.) Software Agents and Soft Computing: Towards Enhancing Machine Intelligence. LNCS, vol. 1198, pp. 3–26. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    OASIS. Business process execution language for web services v.1.1 (2003)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    OASIS, eXtensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) Version 2.0 (2005),
  132. 132.
    Omicini, A., Denti, E.: From tuple spaces to tuple centres. Science of Computer Programming 41(3), 277–294 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Omicini, A., Ricci, A., Viroli, M.: Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent systems. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 17(3), 432–456 (2008); Special Issue on Foundations, Advanced Topics and Industrial Perspectives of Multi-Agent SystemsGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Omicini, A., Zambonelli, F.: MAS as complex systems: A view on the role of declarative approaches. In: Leite, J., Omicini, A., Sterling, L., Torroni, P. (eds.) DALT 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2990, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Paolucci, M., Kawamura, T., Payne, T., Sycara, K.: Semantic matching of web services capabilities. In: Horrocks, I., Hendler, J. (eds.) ISWC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2342, pp. 333–347. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Peine, H.: ARA - Agents for Remote Action. In: Mobile Agents. Manning Publishing (1997)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pesic, M., van der Aalst, W.M.P.: A declarative approach for flexible business processes management. In: Eder, J., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM Workshops 2006. LNCS, vol. 4103, pp. 169–180. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Phung-Khac, A., Beugnard, A., Gilliot, J.-M., Segarra, M.-T.: Model-driven development of component-based adaptive distributed applications. In: Proc. of SAC 2008, pp. 2186–2191. ACM, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Pistore, M., Spalazzi, L., Traverso, P.: A minimalist approach to semantic annotations for web processes compositions. In: Sure, Y., Domingue, J. (eds.) ESWC 2006. LNCS, vol. 4011, pp. 620–634. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Piunti, M., Santi, A., Ricci, A.: Programming SOA/WS systems with cognitive agents and artifact-based environments. In: Proc. of MALLOW 2009 Multi-Agent Logics, Languages, and Organisations Federated Workshops, CEUR Workshop Proceedings (2009) ISSN 1613-0073Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Rao, A.S.: AgentSpeak(L): BDI agents speak out in a logical computable language. In: Perram, J., Van de Velde, W. (eds.) MAAMAW 1996. LNCS, vol. 1038, pp. 42–55. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rao, A.S., Georgeff, M.P.: Asymmetry thesis and side-effect problems in linear-time and branching-time intention logics. In: Proc. of IJCAI 1991, pp. 498–504 (1991)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rao, A.S., Georgeff, M.P.: Decision procedures for BDI logics. J. Log. Comput. 8(3), 293–342 (1998)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Reisig, W., Rozenberg, G. (eds.): APN 1998. LNCS, vol. 1491. Springer, Heidelberg (1998); the volumes are based on the Advanced Course on Petri Nets, held in Dagstuhl (September 1996)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Reiter, R.: On knowledge-based programming with sensing in the situation calculus. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL) 2(4), 433–457 (2001)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Renz, W.: Models and multi-agent simulations of logistics networks - a case-study in self-organization by microeconomics. In: MKWI 2008. GITO-Verlag, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rimassa, G., Burmeister, B.: Achieving business process agility in engineering change management with agent technology. In: WOA 2007, pp. 1–7. Seneca Edizioni Torino (2007)Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Roland, J., Vesonder, G., Wilson, J.: C5 user manual, release 2.1. Technical report, AT&T Bell Laboratories (1990)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rossi, G.: Logic Programming in Italy: A Historical Perspective. In: Dovier, A., Pontelli, E. (eds.) 25 Years of Logic Programming in Italy. LNCS, vol. 6125, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Sadri, F., Toni, F.: Computational Logic and Multi-Agent Systems: a Roadmap. Technical report, Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (1999)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Salasin, J., Madni, A.M.: Metrics for service-oriented architecture (soa) systems: What developers should know. J. Integr. Des. Process Sci. 11(2), 55–71 (2007)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Schroeder, M., de Almeida Móra, I., Pereira, L.M.: A deliberative and reactive diagnosis agent based on logic programming. In: Rao, A., Singh, M.P., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) ATAL 1997. LNCS, vol. 1365, pp. 293–307. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Semantic Annotations for WSDL Working Group. Semantic annotations for wsdl and xml schema. Technical report, W3C (2007)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Semmel, G.S., Davis, S.R., Leucht, K.W., Rowe, D.A., Smith, K.E., Boloni, L.: Space shuttle ground processing with monitoring agents. IEEE Intelligent Systems 21(1), 68–73 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Shapiro, S., Lespérance, Y., Levesque, H.J.: The cognitive agent specification language and verification environment for multiagent systems. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2002, pp. 19–26. ACM Press, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Shoham, Y.: Agent-oriented programming. Artificial Intelligence 60(1), 51–92 (1993)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Singh, M.P.: Agent communication languages: Rethinking the principles. IEEE Computer 31(12), 40–47 (1998)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sloman, A., Poli, R.: SIM_AGENT: A toolkit for exploring agent design. In: Tambe, M., Müller, J., Wooldridge, M.J. (eds.) IJCAI-WS 1995 and ATAL 1995. LNCS, vol. 1037, pp. 392–407. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sohrabi, S., Prokoshyna, N., McIlraith, S.A.: Web service composition via the customization of Golog programs with user preferences. In: Borgida, A.T., Chaudhri, V.K., Giorgini, P., Yu, E.S. (eds.) Conceptual Modeling: Foundations and Applications: Essays in Honor of John Mylopoulos, pp. 319–334. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sterling, L., Shapiro, E.: The art of Prolog: advanced programming techniques (1986)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Subrahmanian, V., Bonatti, P., Dix, J., Eiter, T., Kraus, S., Özcan, F., Ross, R.: Heterogenous Active Agents, 580 pages. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Thomas, S.R.: The PLACA agent programming language. In: Wooldridge, M.J., Jennings, N.R. (eds.) ECAI 1994 and ATAL 1994. LNCS, vol. 890, pp. 355–370. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Torroni, P.: Computational logic in multi-agent systems: Recent advances and future directions. Ann. Math. Artif. Intell. 42(1-3), 293–305 (2004)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Torroni, P., Chesani, F., Mello, P., Montali, M.: Social commitments in time: Satisfied or compensated. In: Baldoni, M., van Riemsdijk, M.B. (eds.) DALT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5948, pp. 228–243. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Torroni, P., Chesani, F., Mello, P., Montali, M.: Social commitments in time: satisfied or compensated. In: Baldoni, M., Bentahar, J., Lloyd, J., van Riemsdijk, M.B. (eds.) DALT 2009. LNCS, Springer, Heidelberg (2010)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Torroni, P., Yolum, P., Singh, M.P., Alberti, M., Chesani, F., Gavanelli, M., Lamma, E., Mello, P.: Modelling interactions via commitments and expectations. In: Handbook of Research on Multi-Agent Systems: Semantics and Dynamics of Organizational Models, Hershey, Pennsylvania, March 2009, pp. 263–284. IGI Global (2009)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    van der Aalst, W.M.P., Dumas, M., ter Hofstede, A.H.M., Russell, N., Verbeek, H.M.W., Wohed, P.: Life after BPEL? In: Bravetti, M., Kloul, L., Zavattaro, G. (eds.) EPEW/WS-EM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3670, pp. 35–50. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Van Linder, B.: Modal Logics for Rational Agents. PhD thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands (1987)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    van Riemsdijk, B., van der Hoek, W., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Agent programming in Dribble: from beliefs to goals using plans. In: Proc. of AAMAS 2003, pp. 393–400 (2003)Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    van Riemsdijk, M.B., de Boer, F.S., Dastani, M.M., Meyer, J.-J.C.: Prototyping 3APL in the Maude term rewriting language. In: Inoue, K., Satoh, K., Toni, F. (eds.) CLIMA 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4371, pp. 95–114. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    van Riemsdijk, M.B., Wirsing, M.: Goal-Oriented and Procedural Service Orchestration. A Formal Comparison. In: AWESOME 2007, Durham, UK (September 2007)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Vasconcelos, W.W.: Logic-based electronic institutions. In: Leite, J., Omicini, A., Sterling, L., Torroni, P. (eds.) DALT 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 2990, pp. 221–242. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    W3C The Platform for Privacy Preferences 1.0 (P3P1.0) Specification (2002),
  174. 174.
    Weber, N., Braubach, L., Pokahr, A., Lamersdorf, W.: Agent-based semantic search at In: Braubach, L., van der Hoek, W., Petta, P., Pokahr, A. (eds.) MATES 2009. LNCS, vol. 5774, pp. 278–287. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Weihmayer, T., Tan, M.: Modeling cooperative agents for customer network control using planning and agent-oriented programming. In: IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Globecom 1992, Proceedings, pp. 537–543. IEEE, Los Alamitos (1992)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    White, S.: Business Process Modeling Notation Specification 1.0. Technical report, OMG (2006)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Winikoff, M., Padgham, L., Harland, J., Thangarajah, J.: Declarative & procedural goals in intelligent agent systems. In: Proc. of KR 2002, pp. 470–481 (2002)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Wooldridge, M.: The Logical Model of Computational Multi–Agent Systems. PhD thesis, Department of Computation, UMIST, Manchester, UK (1992)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wooldridge, M.: This is MYWORLD: The logic of an agent-oriented testbed for DAI. In: Wooldridge, M.J., Jennings, N.R. (eds.) ECAI 1994 and ATAL 1994. LNCS, vol. 890, pp. 160–178. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wooldridge, M.: An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. Wiley, Chichester (2002)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N.R.: Intelligent agents: Theory and practice. Knowledge Engineering Review 10(2), 115–152 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Wooldridge, M.J.: In: Kandzia, P., Klusch, M. (eds.) CIA 1997. LNCS, vol. 1202, pp. 1–18. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Yolum, P., Singh, M.P.: Flexible protocol specification and execution: applying event calculus planning using commitments. In: AAMAS, pp. 527–534. ACM, New York (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Yu, Q., Liu, X., Bouguettaya, A., Medjahed, B.: Deploying and managing web services: issues, solutions, and directions. The VLDB Journal 17(3), 537–572 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zaremski, A.M., Wing, J.M.: Specification matching of software components. ACM Transactions on SEM 6(4), 333–369 (1997)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Zöller, A., Braubach, L., Pokahr, A., Rothlauf, F., Paulussen, T.O., Lamersdorf, W., Heinzl, A.: Evaluation of a multi-agent system for hospital patient scheduling. International Transactions on Systems Science and Applications 1(4), 375–380 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matteo Baldoni
    • 1
  • Cristina Baroglio
    • 1
  • Viviana Mascardi
    • 2
  • Andrea Omicini
    • 3
  • Paolo Torroni
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di InformaticaUniversità degli Studi di TorinoTorinoItaly
  2. 2.DISIUniversità degli Studi di GenovaGenovaItaly
  3. 3.DEISAlma Mater Studiorum–Università di BolognaBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations