Advertisement

Restricting and Embedding Imperatives

  • Nate Charlow
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6042)

Abstract

We use imperatives to refute a naïve analysis of update potentials (force-operators attaching to sentences), arguing for a dynamic analysis of imperative force as restrictable, directed, and embeddable. We propose a dynamic, non-modal analysis of conditional imperatives, as a counterpoint to static, modal analyses (e.g., Schwager [16]). Our analysis retains Kratzer’s [8] analysis of if-clauses as restrictors of some operator (with Schwager), but avoids typing it as a generalized quantifier over worlds (against her), instead as a dynamic force operator (cf. Portner [13, 14]; Potts [15]). Arguments for a restrictor treatment (but against a quantificational treatment) are mustered, and we propose a novel analysis of update on conditional imperatives (and an independently motivated revision of the standard ordering-semantics for root modals that makes use of it). Finally, we argue that imperative force is embeddable under an operation much like dynamic conjunction.

Keywords

Propositional Attitude Contingency Plan Natural Language Semantic Imperative Operator Conversational Background 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Asher, N., Lascarides, A.: Indirect Speech Acts. Synthese 128, 183–228 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Charlow, N.: Directives. Ms (2009a)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Charlow, N.: What we know and what to do. Ms (2009b)Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Groenendijk, J., Stokhof, M.: Studies on the semantics of questions and the pragmatics of answers. Ph.D. Diss., ILLC (1984)Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Han, C.: The structure and interpretation of imperatives: Mood and force in universal grammar. Ph.D. Diss. University of Pennsylvania (1998), http://www.sfu.ca/~chunghye/papers/dissertation.pdf
  6. [6]
    Hawthorne, J., Stanley, J.: Knowledge and action. The Journal of Philosophy 105, 571–590 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Kolodny, N., MacFarlane, J.: Ifs and oughts. Ms (2009), http://johnmacfarlane.net/ifs-and-oughts.pdf
  8. [8]
    Kratzer, A.: The notional category of modality. In: Eikmeyer, H., Rieser, H. (eds.) Words, Worlds, and Contexts, pp. 38–74. De Gruyter, Berlin (1981)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Krifka, M.: Quantifying into question acts. Natural Language Semantics 9, 1–40 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Krifka, M.: Semantics below and above speech acts. Talk delivered at Stanford (2004) http://amor.rz.hu-berlin.de/~h2816i3x/Talks/StanfordLecture2004.pdf
  11. [11]
    Lewis, D.: General semantics. Synthese 22, 18–67 (1970)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Mastop, R.: What can you do? Ph.D. Diss., ILLC (2005)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Portner, P.: The semantics of imperatives within a theory of clause types. In: Watanabe, K., Young, R. (eds.) Proceedings of SALT 14. CLC Publications (2004) http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/mJlZGQ4N/
  14. [14]
    Portner, P.: Imperatives and modals. Natural Language Semantics 15, 351–383 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Potts, C.: Keeping world and will apart: A discourse-based semantics for imperatives. NYU Syntax/Semantics Lecture Series (2003) http://people.umass.edu/potts/talks/potts-nyu-handout.pdf
  16. [16]
    Schwager, M.: Conditionalized imperatives. In: Gibson, M., Howell, J. (eds.) Proceedings of SALT 16. CLC Publications (2006) http://user.uni-frankfurt.de/~scheiner/papers/schwagerFEB07.pdf
  17. [17]
    Stenius, E.: Mood and language game. Synthese 17, 254–274 (1967) doi:10.1007/BF00485030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Weirich, P.: Decision when desires are uncertain. In: Bradie, M., Sayre, K. (eds.) Reason and Decision, pp. 69–75. Bowling Green State UP (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nate Charlow
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of Michigan 

Personalised recommendations