Extended Rate-Hardness: A Measure for Perceived Hardness

  • Gabjong Han
  • Seungmoon Choi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6191)

Abstract

This paper presents a measure for assessing the perceived hardness of a haptic surface based on associated physical variables. This metric, named extended rate-hardness (ERH), is extended from rate-hardness originally proposed by Lawrence et al. in order to cover a larger class of rendering algorithms and applications. We also performed a psychophysical evaluation using absolute magnitude estimation to quantify the extent to which the ERH can account for perceived hardness. The findings have implications to developing haptic interfaces and rendering algorithms with improved perceptual hardness.

Keywords

Hardness perception stiffness perception rate-hardness extended rate-hardness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bergmann Tiest, W.M., Kappers, A.M.L.: Cues for haptic perception of compliance. IEEE Transactions on Haptics 2, 189–199 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Colgate, J., Brown, J.: Factors affecting the z-width of a haptic display. In: Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 3205–3210 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Friedman, R., Hester, K., Green, B., LaMotte, R.: Magnitude estimation of softness. Experimental Brain Research 191(2), 133–142 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gescheider, G.: Psychophysics: The Fundamentals. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han, G., Jeon, S., Choi, S.: Improving perceived hardness of haptic rendering via stiffness shifting: An initial study. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 87–90. ACM, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harper, R., Stevens, S.: Subjective hardness of compliant materials. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 16(3), 204–215 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jeon, S., Choi, S.: Haptic augmented reality: Taxonomy and an example of stiffness modulation. Presence 18(5), 387–408 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuchenbecker, K., Fiene, J., Niemeyer, G.: Improving contact realism through event-based haptic feedback. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 12(2), 219–230 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LaMotte, R.: Softness discrimination with a tool. Journal of Neurophysiology 83(4), 1777–1786 (2000)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lawrence, D., Pao, L., Dougherty, A., Salada, M., Pavlou, Y.: Rate-hardness: A new performance metric for haptic interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation 16(4), 357–371 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Okamura, A., Cutkosky, M., Dennerlein, J.: Reality-based models for vibration feedback in virtual environments. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 6(3), 245–252 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pressman, A., Welty, L., Karniel, A., Mussa-Ivaldi, F.: Perception of delayed stiffness. The International Journal of Robotics Research 26(11-12), 1191–1204 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salcudean, S., Vlaar, T.: On the emulation of stiff walls and static friction with a magnetically levitated input/output device. Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control 119(1), 127–132 (1997)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Salisbury, K., Brock, D., Massie, T., Swarup, N., Zilles, C.: Haptic rendering: Programming touch interaction with virtual objects. In: Proc. of the ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 123–130 (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Srinivasan, M., LaMotte, R.: Tactual discrimination of softness. Journal of Neurophysiology 73(1), 88–101 (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabjong Han
    • 1
  • Seungmoon Choi
    • 1
  1. 1.Haptics and Virtual Reality Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and EngineeringPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)South Korea

Personalised recommendations