Logical Form as a Determinant of Cognitive Processes

  • Michiel van Lambalgen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6188)

Abstract

We discuss a research program on reasoning patterns in subjects with autism, showing that they fail to engage in certain forms of non-monotonic reasoning that come naturally to neurotypical subjects. The striking reasoning patterns of autists occur both in verbal and in non-verbal tasks. Upon formalising the relevant non-verbal tasks, one sees that their logical form is the same as that of the verbal tasks. This suggests that logical form can play a causal role in cognitive processes, and we suggest that this logical form is actually embodied in the cognitive capacity called ’executive function’.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Byrne, R.M.J.: Suppressing valid inferences with conditionals. Cognition 31, 61–83 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dieussaert, K., Schaeken, W., Schroyen, W., d’Ydewalle, G.: Strategies during complex conditional inferences. Thinking and Reasoning 6(2), 125–161 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leslie, A.: Pretence and representation: the origins of a ‘theory of mind’. Psychological Review 94, 412–426 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marr, D.: Vision: A Computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. W.H. Freeman, San Fransisco (1982)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oaksford, M., Chater, N.: Probabilities and pragmatics in conditional inference: suppression and order effects. In: Hardman, D., Macchi, L. (eds.) Thinking: psychological perspectives on reasoning, judgment and decision making, vol. 6, pp. 95–122. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oaksford, M., Chater, N.: Bayesian rationality. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Onishi, K.H., Baillargeon, R.: Do 15-month-old infants understand false beliefs? Science 308, 255–258 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ozonoff, S., Strayer, D.L., McMahon, W.M., Filloux, F.: Executive function abilities in children with autism and tourette syndrom: an information-processing approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 35, 1015–1032 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perner, J., Leekham, S., Wimmer, H.: Three-year olds’ difficulty with false belief: the case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 5, 125–137 (1987)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Piaget, J.: Logic and psychology. Manchester University Press, Manchester (1953)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pijnacker, J., Geurts, B., van Lambalgen, M., Buitelaar, J., Kan, C., Hagoort, P.: Conditional reasoning in high-functioning adults with autism. Neuropsychologia 47(3), 644–651 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Russell, J.: Autism as an executive disorder. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Russell, J.: Cognitive theories of autism. In: Harrison, J.E., Owen, A.M. (eds.) Cognitive deficits in brain disorders, pp. 295–323. Dunitz, London (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Siegal, M., Beattie, K.: Where to look first for children’s knowledge of false beliefs. Cognition 38, 1–12 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smid, H.: Reasoning with rules and exceptions in autism. Msc thesis, ILLC, Amsterdam (2005), http://staff.science.uva.nl/~michiell
  16. 16.
    Stenning, K., van Lambalgen, M.: A little logic goes a long way: basing experiment on semantic theory in the cognitive science of conditional reasoning. Cognitive Science 28(4), 481–530 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stenning, K., van Lambalgen, M.: Semantic interpretation as reasoning in nonmonotonic logic: the real meaning of the suppression task. Cognitive Science 29(6), 919–960 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stenning, K., van Lambalgen, M.: Human reasoning and cognitive science. MIT Press, Cambridge (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stenning, K., van Lambalgen, M.: ‘Non-monotonic’ does not mean ‘probabilistic’ (Commentary on Oaksford and Chater’s ‘Précis of Bayesian Rationality)’. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32(1), 102–103 (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stenning, K., van Lambalgen, M.: Logic in a noisy world. In: Oaksford, M. (ed.) The psychology of conditionals. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stevenson, R., Over, D.: Deduction from uncertain premisses. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 48(3), 613–643 (1995)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tomasello, M.: Constructing a language. A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Harvard University Press, Boston (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Lambalgen, M., Hamm, F.: The proper treatment of events. Blackwell, Oxford (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    van Lambalgen, M., van Kruistum, C., Parigger, E.M.: Discourse processing in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17, 467–487 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wason, P.C.: Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 20, 273–281 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiel van Lambalgen
    • 1
  1. 1.ILLC/Department of PhilosophyUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdam

Personalised recommendations