Advertisement

The Efficacy of Prototyping Under Time Constraints

  • Steven P. Dow
  • Scott R. Klemmer
Chapter
Part of the Understanding Innovation book series (UNDINNO)

Abstract

Iterative prototyping helps designers refine their ideas and discover previously unknown issues and opportunities. However, the time constraints of production schedules can discourage iteration in favor of realization. Is this tradeoff prudent? This paper investigates if – under tight time constraints – iterating multiple times provides more benefit than a single iteration. A between-subjects study manipulates participants’ ability to iterate on a design task. Participants in the iteration condition outperformed those in the non-iteration condition. Participants with prior experience with the task performed better. Notably, participants in the iteration condition without prior task experience performed as well as non-iterating participants with prior task experience.

Keywords

Prototyping Iteration Empirical studies of design 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Hasso Plattner Design Thinking Research Program funded this research. We thank Björn Hartmann, Jeff Heer, Daniel Schwartz, Barbara Tversky, and Terry Winograd for helpful comments on early versions of this paper.

References

  1. 1.
    Aronson, J.M. Improving academic achievement. Academic, 2002.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Athavankar, U.A. Mental imagery as a design tool. Cybernetics and Systems 28, 1 (1997), 25–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Austin, R., and Devin, L. Artful Making: What Managers Need to Know About How Artists Work. Financial Times Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ball, L.J., and Christensen, B.T. Analogical reasoning and mental simulation in design: two strategies linked to uncertainty resolution. Design Studies 30, 2 (2009), 169–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bilda, Z., and Gero, J.S. The impact of working memory limitations on the design process during conceptualization. Design Studies 28, 4 (2007), 343–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    de Bono, E. Six Thinking Hats. Back Bay Books, 1999.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown, T. Change By Design. HarperCollins, 2009.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buchenau, M., and Suri, J.F. Experience prototyping. Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques, ACM (2000), 424–433.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buxton, B. Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design. Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Christensen, B.T., and Schunn, C.D. The role and impact of mental simulation in design. Applied Cognitive Psychology 23, 3 (2009), 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cross, N. Designerly Ways of Knowing. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Leon, D. Building Thought Into Things. European Conference on Cognitive Science, (1999), 37–47.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dodgson, P., and Wood, J. Self-esteem and the cognitive accessibility of strengths and weaknesses after failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75, 1 (1998), 178–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dweck, C. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. Ballantine Books, 2007.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dym, C.L., and Little, P. Engineering Design: A Project-Based Introduction. Wiley, 1999.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Erdogmus, H. The Economic Impact of Learning and Flexibility on Process Decisions. IEEE Software 22, 6 (2005), 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ericsson, K.A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P.J., and Hoffman, R.R. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance. Cambridge University Press, 2006.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finke, R.A., and Slayton, K. Explorations of creative visual synthesis in mental imagery. Memory and Cognition 16, 3 (1988), 252–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Finke, R.A. Creative Imagery. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gentner, D., and Stevens, A.L. Mental models. 1983.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gero, J.S., and Schnier, T. Evolving Representations Of Design Cases And Their Use In Creative Design. In J. S. Gero, M. L. Maher and F. Sudweeks (eds), Preprints Computational Models of Creative Design (1995), 343–368.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goffman, E. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Northeastern, 1986.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hartmann, B., Doorley, S., and Klemmer, S. Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: A Study of Opportunistic Design and Development. Pervasive Computing 7, 3 (2006), 46–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hinds, P. The Curse of Expertise: The Effects of Expertise and Debiasing Methods on Predictions of Novice Performance. Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology 5, (1999), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hollan, J., Hutchins, E., and Kirsh, D. Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 7, 2 (2000), 174–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Houde, S., and Hill, C. What do prototypes prototype? Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, (1997).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hutchins, E. Cognition in the Wild. MIT, 1996.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jansson, D., and Smith, S. Design Fixation. Design Studies 12, 1 (1991), 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones, JC. Design Methods. Wiley, 1992.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Karat, C. Cost-benefit analysis of usability engineering techniques. Human Factors Society, (1990), 839–843.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kelley, T. The art of innovation. Profile Business, 2002.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kershaw, T.C., and Ohlsson, S. Multiple causes of difficulty in insight: the case of the nine-dot problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 30, 1 (2004), 3–13.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kirsh, D., and Maglio, P. On Distinguishing Epistemic from Pragmatic Action. Cognitive Science 18, (1994), 513–549.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kolko, J. Thoughts on Interaction Design. Brown Bear LLC, 2007.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kolodner, J.L., and Wills, L.M. Powers of observation in creative design. Design Studies 17, 4 (1996), 385–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Larkin, J., and Simon, H. Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words. Cognitive Science 11, 1 (1987), 65–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Laurel, B. Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. MIT, 2003.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lave, J. Cognition in Practice. Cambridge University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lim, Y., Stolterman, E., and Tenenberg, J. The anatomy of prototypes: Prototypes as filters, prototypes as manifestations of design ideas. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 15, 2 (2008), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lim, Y., Pangam, A., Periyasami, S., and Aneja, S. Comparative analysis of high- and low-fidelity prototypes for more valid usability evaluations of mobile devices. Proceedings of the 4th Nordic conference on Human-computer interaction: changing roles, ACM (2006), 291–300.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maglio, P., Matlock, T., Raphaely, D., Chernicky, B., and Kirsh, D. Interactive Skill in Scrabble. Lawrence Erlbaum (1999).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Maglio, P.P., and Kirsh, D. Epistemic Action Increases With Skill. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society 16, (1996), 391–396.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Martin, R.L. Creativity That Goes Deep. Business Week, 2005. http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/aug2005/di20050803_823317.htm.
  44. 44.
    Merholz, P., Wilkens, T., Schauer, B., and Verba, D. Subject To Change: Creating Great Products & Services for an Uncertain World: Adaptive Path on Design. O’Reilly Media, 2008.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Michalko, M. Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Creative-Thinking Techniques. Ten Speed Press, 2006.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Miller, G.A. The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 2 (1956), 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Osborn, A.F. Applied Imagination: Principles and Procedures of Creative Problem Solving. Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schon, D.A. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Ashgate Publishing, 1995.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schrage, M. Cultures of prototyping. In Bringing design to software book contents. 1996, 191–213.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schrage, M. Serious Play: How the World’s Best Companies Simulate to Innovate. Harvard Business School Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sutton, R., and Hargadon, A. Brainstorming groups in context: effectiveness in a product design firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, (1996).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Suwa, M., Gero, J., and Purcell, T. Unexpected discoveries and S-invention of design requirements: Important vehicles for a design process. Design Studies 21, (2000), 539–567.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Suwa, M., and Tversky, B. External Representations Contribute to the Dynamic Construction of Ideas. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Diagrammatic Representation and Inference, Springer (2002), 341–343.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thompson, L., Gentner, D., and Loewenstein, J. Avoiding Missed Opportunities in Managerial Life: Analogical Training More Powerful Than Individual Case Training. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 82, 1 (2000), 60–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Torrance, E.P. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Personnel Press, Ginn and Co., Xerox Education Co, 1974.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Warr, A., and O’Neill, E. Understanding design as a social creative process. Proceedings of the 5th conference on Creativity & Cognition, ACM (2005), 118–127.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ylirisku, S., Halttunen, V., Nuojua, J., and Juustila, A. Framing design in the third paradigm. Proceedings of the 27th international conference on Human factors in computing systems, ACM (2009), 1131–1140.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang, J., and Norman, D. Representations in distributed cognitive tasks. Cognitive Science 18, 1 (1994), 87–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human-Computer Interaction GroupStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations