Behavior Wizard: A Method for Matching Target Behaviors with Solutions

  • B. J. Fogg
  • Jason Hreha
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6137)

Abstract

We present a method for matching target behaviors with solutions for achieving those behaviors. Called the Behavior Wizard, this method first classifies behavior change targets into one of 15 types. Later stages focus on triggers for the target behaviors and on relevant theories and techniques. This new approach to persuasive design, as well as the terminology we propose, can lead to insights into the patterns of behavior change. The Behavior Wizard can also increase success rates in academic studies and commercial products. The most current version of this method is at www.BehaviorWizard.org.

Keywords

behavior change persuasive design habits captology behavior models Fogg Behavior Model Behavior Grid Behavior Wizard 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aristotle: Rhetoric, 3rd edn. Dover Publications, Dover (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F.: The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am. J. Health Promot. 12(1), 38–48 (1997) (accessed March 18, 2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kraft, P., Schjelderup-Lund, H., Brendryen, H.: Digital Therapy: The Coming Together of Psychology and Technology Can Create a New Generation of Programs for More Sustainable Change. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 18–23. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bandura, A.: Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Worth Publishers, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dweck, C., Sorich, L.A.: Mastery Oriented Thinking. In: Coping: The Psychology of What Works, pp. 232–251. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nesbit, R., Ross, L.: Human Inference: Strategies and Shortcomings in Social Judgement. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C.: The transtheoretical approach. In: Norcross, J.C., Goldfried, M.R. (eds.) Handbook of psychotherapy integration, 2nd edn., pp. 147–171. Oxford University Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Littell, J.H., Girvin, H.: Stages of Change. Beh. Mod. 26, 223–273 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brug, J., Conner, M., Harre, N., Kremers, S., McKellar, S., Whitelaw, S.: The Transtheoretical Model and Stages of Change: A Critique. H. Edu. Res. 20, 244–258 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Marwell, G., Schmitt, D.R.: Dimensions of compliance-gaining behavior: An empirical analysis. Sociometery 30, 350–364 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Burby, J.: Breaking Down a Conversion Funnel. ClickZ Online (May 24, 2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fogg, B.J.: The Behavior Grid: 35 Ways Behavior Can Change. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 42 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marwell, G., Schmitt, D.R.: Dimensions of compliance-gaining behavior: An empirical analysis. Sociometery 30, 350–364 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bang, M., Torstensson, C., Katzeff, C.: The PowerHhouse: A Persuasive Computer Game Designed to Raise Awareness of Domestic Energy Consumption. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 123–132. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dijkstra, A.: Technology Adds New Principles to Persuasive Psychology. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 16–26. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eyck, A., Geerlings, K., Karimova, D., Meerbeek, B., Wang, L., IJsselsteijn, W., de Kort, Y., Roersma, M., Westerink, J.: Effect of a Virtual Coach on Athletes’ Motivation. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 158–161. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gasser, R., Brodbeck, D., Degen, M., Luthiger, J., Wyss, R., Reichlin, S.: Persuasiveness of a Mobile Lifestyle Coaching Application Using Social Facilitation. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 27–38. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grolleman, J., van Dijk, B., Nijholt, A., van Emst, A.: Break the Habit! Designing an e-Therapy Intervention Using a Virtual Coach in Aid of Smoking Cessation. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 133–141. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lucero, A., Zuloaga, R., Mota, S., Munoz, F.: Persuasive Technologies in Education: Improving Motivation to Read and Write for Children. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 142–153. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCalley, T., Kaiser, F., Midden, C., Keser, M., Teunissen, M.: Persuasive Appliances: Goal Priming and Behavioral Response to Product-Integrated Energy Feedback. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 45–49. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sterns, A.A., Mayhorn, C.B.: Persuasive Pillboxes: Improving Medication Adherence with Personal Digital Assistants. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 195–198. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tscheligi, M., Reitberger, W., Obermair, C., Ploderer, B.: perCues: Trails of Persuasion for Ambient Intelligence. In: IJsselsteijn, W.A., de Kort, Y.A.W., Midden, C., Eggen, B., van den Hoven, E. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2006. LNCS, vol. 3962, pp. 203–206. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahrens, J., Strahilevitz, M.A.: Can Companies Initiate Positive Word of Mouth? A Field Experiment Examining the Effects of Incentive Magnitude and Equity, and eReferral Mechanisms. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 160–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kraft, P., et al.: Digital Therapy: The Coming Together of Psychology and Technology Can Create a New Generation of Programs for More Sustainable Behavioral Change. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 18–23. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bickmore, T.W., Mauer, D., Crespo, F., Brown, T.: Persuasion, Task Interruption and Health Regimen Adherence. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 1–11. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Revelle, G., Reardon, E., Mays Green, M., Betancourt, J., Kotler, J.: The Use of Mobile Phones to Support Children’s Literacy Learning. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 253–258. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reitberger, W., Ploderer, B., Obermair, C., Tscheligi, M.: The PerCues Framework and Its Application for Sustainable Mobility. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 92–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harper, F.M., Li, S.X., Chen, Y., Konstan, J.A.: Social Comparisons to Motivate Contributions to an Online Community. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 148–159. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gamberini, L., Petrucci, G., Spoto, A., Spagnolli, A.: Embedded Persuasive Strategies to Obtain Visitors’ Data: Comparing Reward and Reciprocity in an Amateur, Knowledge-Based Website. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 187–198. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Felfernig, A., Friedrich, G., Gula, B., Hitz, M., Kruggel, T., Leitner, G., Melcher, R., Riepan, D., Strauss, S., Teppan, E.: Persuasive Recommendation: Serial Position Effects in Knowledge-Based Recommender Systems. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 283–294. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mahmud, A.A., Dadlani, P., Mubin, O., Shahid, S., Midden, C., Moran, O.: iParrot: Towards Designing a Persuasive Agent for Energy Conservation. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 64–67. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wai, C., Mortensen, P.: Persuasive Technologies Should Be Boring. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 96–99. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brodie, M., Lai, J., Lenchner, J., Luken, W., Ranganathan, K., Tang, J.-M., Vukovic, M.: Support Services: Persuading Employees to Do what Is in the Community’s Best Interest. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 121–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Niebuhr, S., Kerkow, D.: Captivating Patterns - A First Validation. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 48–54. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bang, M., Gustafsson, A., Katzeff, C.: Promoting New Patterns in Household Energy Consumption with Pervasive Learning Games. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 55–63. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gable, R.S.: Electronic Monitoring of Offenders. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 100–104. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khaled, R., Barr, P., Noble, J., Fischer, R., Biddle, R.: Fine Tuning the Persuasion in Persuasive Games. In: de Kort, Y.A.W., IJsselsteijn, W.A., Midden, C., Eggen, B., Fogg, B.J. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 36–47. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chi, P.-Y., Chen, J.-H., Chu, H.-H., Lo, J.-L.: Enabling Calorie-Aware Cooking in a Smart Kitchen. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 116–127. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fogg, B.J.: Mass Interpersonal Persuasion: An Early View of a New Phenomenon. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 23–34. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Forget, A., Chiasson, S., van Oorschot, P.C., Biddle, R.: Persuasion for Stronger Passwords: Motivation and Pilot Study. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 140–150. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kraft, P., Drozd, F., Olsen, E.: Digital Therapy: Addressing Willpower as Part of the Cognitive-Affective Processing System in the Service of Habit Change. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 177–188. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parmar, V., Keyson, D., de Bont, C.: Persuasive Technology for Shaping Social Beliefs of Rural Women in India: An Approach Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 104–115. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Raisanen, T., Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Pahnila, S.: Finding Kairos in Quitting Smoking: Smokers’ Perceptions of Warning Pictures. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 254–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ramachandran, D., Canny, J.: The Persuasive Power of Human-Machine Dialogue. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 189–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Obermair, C., Reitberger, W., Meschtscherjakov, A., Lankes, M., Tscheligi, M.: perFrames: Persuasive Picture Frames for Proper Posture. In: Oinas-Kukkonen, H., Hasle, P., Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Øhrstrøm, P. (eds.) PERSUASIVE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5033, pp. 128–139. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Berkovsky, S., Bhandari, D., Kimani, S., Colineau, N., Paris, C.: Designing games to motivate physical activity. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 37 (2009)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Consolvo, S., Klasnja, P.V., McDonald, D.W., Landay, J.A.: Goal-setting considerations for persuasive technologies that encourage physical activity. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 8 (2009)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ferebee, S.S., Davis, J.W.: Factors that persuade continued use of Facebook among new members. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 35 (2009)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Firpo, D., Kasemvilas, S., Ractham, P., Zhang, X.: Generating a sense of community in a graduate educational setting through persuasive technology. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 41 (2009)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harjumaa, M., Segerståhl, K., Oinas-Kukkonen, H.: Understanding persuasive software functionality in practice: a field trial of polar FT60. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 2 (2009)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Iyengar, M.S., Florez-Arango, J.F., Garcia, C.A.: GuideView: a system for developing structured, multimodal, multi-platform persuasive applications. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 31 (2009)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kappel, K., Grechenig, T.: Show-me: water consumption at a glance to promote water conservation in the shower. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 26 (2009)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lockton, D., Harrison, D., Holley, T., Stanton, N.A.: Influencing interaction: development of the design with intent method. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 5 (2009)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Midden, C., Ham, J.: Using negative and positive social feedback from a robotic agent to save energy. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 12 (2009)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Olsen, E., Kraft, P.: ePsychology: a pilot study on how to enhance social support and adherence in digital interventions by characteristics from social networking sites. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 32 (2009)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ranfelt, A.M., Wigram, T., Øhrstrøm, P.: Towards a handy interactive persuasive diary for teenagers with a diagnosis of autism. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 3 (2009)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Saini, P., Lacroix, J.: Self-setting of physical activity goals and effects on perceived difficulty, importance and competence. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 33 (2009)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shiraishi, M., Washio, Y., Takayama, C., Lehdonvirta, V., Kimura, H., Nakajima, T.: Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 13 (2009)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Duncan, J., Camp, L.J., Hazelwood, W.R.: The portal monitor: a privacy-enhanced event-driven system for elder care. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 36 (2009)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vossen, S., Ham, J., Midden, C.: Social influence of a persuasive agent: the role of agent embodiment and evaluative feedback. In: Persuasive 2009, p. 46 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. J. Fogg
    • 1
  • Jason Hreha
    • 1
  1. 1.Persuasive Technology Lab @ Stanford University 

Personalised recommendations