Molecular Phylogeny of Heme Peroxidases


All currently available gene sequences of heme peroxidases can be phylogenetically divided in two superfamilies and three families. In this chapter, the phylogenetics and genomic distribution of each group are presented. Within the peroxidase–cyclooxygenase superfamily, the main evolutionary direction developed peroxidatic heme proteins involved in the innate immune defense system and in biosynthesis of (iodinated) hormones. The peroxidase–catalase superfamily is widely spread mainly among bacteria, fungi, and plants, and particularly in Class I led to the evolution of bifunctional catalase–peroxidases. Its numerous fungal representatives of Class II are involved in carbon recycling via lignin degradation, whereas Class III secretory peroxidases from algae and plants are included in various forms of secondary metabolism. The family of di-heme peroxidases are predominantly bacteria-inducible enzymes; however, a few corresponding genes were also detected in archaeal genomes. Four subfamilies of dyp-type peroxidases capable of degradation of various xenobiotics are abundant mainly among bacteria and fungi. Heme-haloperoxidase genes are widely spread among sac and club fungi, but corresponding genes were recently found also among oomycetes. All described families herein represent heme peroxidases of broad diversity in structure and function. Our accumulating knowledge about the evolution of various enzymatic functions and physiological roles can be exploited in future directed evolution approaches for engineering peroxidase genes de novo for various demands.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular BiologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Metalloprotein Research Group, Division of Biochemistry, Department of ChemistryUniversity of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaAustria

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