Stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

  • Manfred F. Buchroithner
  • Maged N. Kamel Boulos
  • Larry R Robinson
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)


Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the ‘third dimension’ or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in “true 3D”, with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.


NVIDIA 3D Vision stereoscopic 3D hardware stereoscopic 3D online maps stereoscopic 3D software stereoscopic 3D technologies stereoscopic 3D virtual globes 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manfred F. Buchroithner
    • 1
  • Maged N. Kamel Boulos
    • 2
  • Larry R Robinson
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for CartographyDresden University of TechnologyDresdenGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of HealthUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK
  3. 3.Geospatial Sciences and Technologies BranchUSGS-BRD-Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences CenterLa CrosseUSA

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